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THE BOOK WAS 
DRENCHED 



64369 > 



REPUBLIC OF CHINA 



REPORT 

of the 

NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

1931-1932 



SHANGHAI 




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TABLE OF CONTENTS 

FOREWORD, by T. V. Soong, Chairman. 

CHAPTER I THE FLOOD OF 1931 . i- 10 

Cause of the Flood Discharge of the Yangtze during the 1931 
Flood Maximum Gauge Heights Extent of the Flood Other Flooded 
Areas Comparison with the Mississippi Flood of 1927 Seriousness of 
the Flood Theoretical Maximum Water Level Had Dykes Not Broken 
Methods of Protection Summary of Situation. 

CHAPTER II ORGANIZATION AND FINANCE . 11-23 

Creation of the Commission Organization of the Commission 
Collection of Information as to the Flood Financial Arrangements 
Public Subscriptions Wheat Purchase Negotiations Italian Indemnity 
Remission Flood Relief Bonds Customs Surtax Credit Arrangements 
Appointment of Director General Further Development in 
Organization. 

CHAPTER III WHEAT AND ITS DISTRIBUTION 24- 62 

Trans-Pacific Movement Bags and Bagging Up-river Movement 
Transfer from Ocean to River Vessels Wharf and Storage Facilities, 
Shanghai Programming Up-river Shipments Demurrage Dispatch 
Money Cost of Up-river Movement Field Organization District 
Personnel District Storage Sub-depot Storage Storage Costs 
Handling Costs Allocations and Deliveries Transport Rail Trans- 
port Water Transport Costs Total Cost Grain Exchange Final 
Distribution Wheat Certificates Finance Accounts Accounting for 
Grain Unit of Weight Scales Grain Accounting Procedure Wast- 
age Conclusion: Accuracy of Allocations, Costs, Liquidation. 

CHAPTER IV EMERGENCY RELIEF AND INSPECTORATE 63- 91 

Inspection Early Relief Work Organization by Districts Hunan 
Organization Hupeh Organization Relief Periods Allocation of Re- 
sources Allocation within Districts Refugee Problem Refugee Camps 
Shelter Numbers Relieved in Camp Dispersal Mortality in Camp 
Orphanages Kitchens Village Relief Organization Lists of Recipients 
Distribution Amount of Distribution Numbers Relieved End of 



Village Relief Small Work Relief: (i) Organization, (2) Subsidy, (3) 
Number of Works, (4) Amount of Work Done, (5) Numbers Em- 
ployed, (6) Results, (7) Criticism Hunan Work Loans Difficulties- 
Cooperation with Other Agencies Number of Personnel Volunteer 
Personnel Limit of Administrative Expenses General Conclusion. 

CHAPTER V FARM REHABILITATION ... . 92-103 

Allocation of Resources Hunan Hupeh Repair of Private Dykes 
Seed Loans Other Undertakings Kiangsu Administration by 
C.I.F.R.C. Policy as to Loans Administrative Expenses Distribution 
of Relief Repayments Object of Loans Terms of Loans Continua- 
tion Programme Prospects in Anhwei and Kiangsi. 

CHAPTER VI ENGINEERING AND LABOUR RELIEF 104-145 

Creation of the Engineering and Labour Relief Division Technical 
Board Aerial Survey Dyke Survey General Plans General Principles 
General Specifications; A. Dyke Construction: B. River Channeling 
Cooperation with Local Authorities Preparation of Rules and Re- 
gulations Estimate of Operating Expense Allocation of Wheat 
Italian Tools Field Work: Division into Districts District Organiza- 
tion Section Organization Sub-section Organization Enlisting Field 
Staff Recruiting Refugee Labour Recruiting Procedure Number Re- 
cruitedMethods of Paying for Earthwork Wage Rates Tools Shel- 
ter Cooperation with other Organizations Labour Relief in Hupeh 
Labour Relief in Honan Labour Relief in Hunan Difficulties: (i) 
Opposition from Property Owners (2) Limited Resources (3) Varia- 
tions in Wage Levels (4) Unsuitability of Tools (5) Communists and 
Bandits Handling Finances Summary of Work Done Unit Cost of 
Work Inspection of Engineering Works Progress Inspection 
Summer Inspection Closure of Work and Transfer to National Econo- 
mic Council Final Inspection. 

CHAPTER VII HYGIENE AND SANITATION . ... . 146-184 

Creation of Department Organization Personnel Drugs, Medical 
Supplies and Equipment: (i) Purchases, (2) Central Pharmacy Stores, 
(3) Donations Wuhan Section: (i) Medical Relief, (2) Epidemic Pre- 
vention, (3) Sanitation, (4) Travelling Clinics North Kiangsu Section: 
(i) Medical Relief, (2) Epidemic Prevention, (3) Sanitation, (4) Travel- 
ling Clinics for Labour Relief Districts Nos. 14, 15, 16 and 17 Nanking 
Section: (i) Medical Relief (2) Epidemic Prevention (3) Sanitation (4) 



Travelling Clinic Kiukiang Section: (i) Medical Relief and Epidemic 
Prevention, (2) Sanitation, (3) Travelling Clinic Wuhu Section: (i) 
Medical Relief, (2) Epidemic Prevention, (3) Sanitation, (4) Travelling 
Clinic Shanghai Section Anking Section North Anhwei Section 
Anti-cholera Campaign: A. Education and Propaganda: B. Mass In- 
oculations: C. Reporting and Isolation of Cases: D. Sanitation Malaria 
Survey. 

CHAPTER VIII CONCLUSION 185-197 

Race Against Time Won Review of Situation Standing Com- 
mittee Meeting June i8th, 1932 Meeting of the Commission June 27th 
Liquidation: (i) Emergency and Small Work Relief (2) Farm Re- 
habilitation (3) Engineering and Labour Relief (4) Department of 
Hygiene and Sanitation Principles of Relief Dyking System Scope 
of Relief Relief in Kind: (i) Advantages (2) Disadvantages General 
Conclusion as to Relief in Kind Effects of Work: (i) Remedial (2) 
Economic (3) Political Accounts Recommendations: (i) Mainten- 
ance of Dykes, (2) Preparation of Preventive Programme, (3) Improve- 
ment of Hwai River. 



APPENDICES 

Appendix 
Number 

I. i. Maximum and Minimum Heights of Yangtze River at Hankow 

1868 to 1932 .... . . . 201 

2. Date of Maximum Heights, Yangtze River, Selected Points, 
Flood of 1931 ... . ... 202 

3. Population and Area of Flooded Districts . . 203 

II. i. Regulations of the National Flood Relief Commission, approv- 
ed by the National Government of China, August 22nd, 1931. 207 

2. Revised Regulations of the National Flood Relief Commission, 
approved by the National Government of China, November 
I4th, 1931 . . 209 



Appendix 
Number 

3. List of Members, National Flood Relief Commission and 
Committees . . . 212 

4. Text of Wheat Purchase Agreement . . 216 

5. Regulations Governing the Flood Relief Customs Surtax 218 

III. i. Purchases of Wheat and Flour . 221 

2. Commissary District Headquarters and Number of Employees 225 

3. Original Allocation of Wheat, revised to March 29th, 1931 226 

4. Tons of Wheat Allocated for Delivery at Each Port; Deliveries 227 

5. Commissary Expense, by Districts . 228 

6. General Statement of Grain Account 229 

IV. i. Allocations for Emergency Relief through District Offices 233 

2. Allocations through Other Organizations 233 

3. Subsidies to Cooperating Relief Organizations 234 

4. Recapitulation . . . 234 

V. i. Deliveries and Payments for Farm Rehabilitation 237 

2. Agreement with Kiangsu Provincial Authorities 238 

VI. i. Organization Chart Engineering and Labour Relief Division 245 

2. Location and Length of Districts . . 246 

3. Summary of Work Done, Wheat Issued and Number of Re- 
fugee Labourers on Different Districts . . 247 

4. Tables showing, by Districts, Work Done, etc., in each 
Section ... . . .... 251-277 

5. Report on Inspection of Dykes and Other Works 278 

VII. i. Financial Report of Hygiene and Sanitation Department 289 
2. Organization Chart, Department of Hygiene and Sanitation 293 



Appendix 
Number 

3. Number of Patients Treated and Preventive Inoculations Given 
by the Field Units and Travelling Clinics for Labour Relief 
Districts, September 1931 to September 1932 . . 294 

4. Number of Patients Treated by the Hospitals according to 
Classification of Diseases, September 1931 to March 1932 . 295 

5. Number of Patients Treated by the Travelling Clinics for 
Labour Relief Districts according to Classification of Diseases, 
February to September 1932 ... 296 

6. Sanitation Work of Field Units and Travelling Clinics for 
Labour Relief Districts, September 1931 to September 1932 297 

7. Number of Persons given Preventive Inoculations by Field 
Units and Travelling Clinics for Labour Relief Districts, 
September 1931 to September 1932 . . 298 

8. Cholera Epidemic in China during 1932 . 299 

9. Number of Patients Treated in Special Cholera Hospitals, 
April to September 1932 . . . .... 300 

10. Malaria Survey at Nanking, Soochow, Hangchow, Wukong 
and Yangtze Ports, November 1931 to January 1932 . . . . 301 

11. Malaria Survey at Nanking, 1932 . . . 302 

12. Number of People Sick Per 1,000 Persons . . . 303 

13. Comparative Data on Deaths of Refugees, 1931 304 
VIII. i. Statement of Receipts and Disbursements 305 

Diagrams Opposite 

Page 

1. Hankow Water Levels . 8 

2. Cross Sections of Dykes . . . IJI 
Map . . Back Cover 



FOREWORD 

x"7^x URING the late summer months of 1931, 
*3I \ 25,000,000 people, inhabiting an area of 70,000 
I 1 square miles, were affected in various ways 
L ^/ by the greatest flood in the history of China. 
Approximately 140,000 persons were drown- 
ed and a number which cannot be accurately ascertained, 
but which must be very large, lost their lives through 
other causes directly attributable to the Hood. Forty 
percent of the people in the affected regions were com- 
pelled to migrate for the greater part of the winter. A 
croj) worth $900,000,000 *was lost, and a total loss of 
$2,000,000,000 was borne by a community whose aver- 
age family earnings do not exceed $300 a year. 

This is only the bare statistical record of the flood. 
It fails to reveal the appalling suffering and demoralisa- 
tion endured by the huge armies of refugees, and it gives 
no indication of the complete dislocation of normal 
economic activities. These figures are sufficient, how- 
ever, to show that the Central China Flood of 1931 must 
be ranked as one of the most disastrous natural calamities 
which the world has witnessed. 

The unparalleled magnitude of the catastrophe rais- 
ed problems of great difficulty. Immediate steps had to 
be taken to relieve millions of destitute families threat- 
ened with rapid starvation, and to restore within a few 
months an elaborate dyke system without which the de- 
vastated areas would be permanently uninhabitable. It 
was clear that so colossal a task could not be accom- 
plished by any existing organization. Accordingly, on 
August 14, 1931, the National Government set up a Na- 
tional Flood Relief Commission. How that body per- 
formed its work is now set forth in detail in the follow- 
ing pages, which constitute the Commission's final report. 

The Commission decided that its first task was to 
save the lives of the refugees by providing food, shelter, 
clothing, and protection against outbreaks of disease. 



After this work of emergency relief, and when the waters 
had sufficiently receded, the Commission would attend to 
the restoration of dykes. In view of the comparatively 
limited resources at the Commission's disposal, vast 
schemes of river conservancy were out of the question; 
in any case, it is exceedingly doubtful whether anything 
can be done to prevent abnormally severe floods. The 
urgent need was to rebuild the dykes where possible to 
a height one metre above the flood level, lest the recur- 
rence of normal flooding should subsequently aggravate a 
situation already sufficiently desperate. Next, after pro- 
vision had been made for immediate relief and restora- 
tion work, enough resources would have to be kept in 
hand to assist in the spring sowing. Lastly, precautions 
would be taken against epidemic diseases. Having thus 
outlined its policy the Commission started out in its race 
against time. 

A few figures selected at random will serve to illus- 
trate the vast scale of the Commission's operations. Relief 
work extended to 269 hsicns. Free relief was granted to 
just under 5,000,000 persons, and 1,000,000 were re- 
lieved in camps. In addition, the Commission distribut- 
ed more than 500,000 suits of winter clothing and more 
than 2,500,000 of the needy and sick refugees received 
medical attention. Advances for farm rehabilitation 
were granted to 360,000 farmers. Some 2,800,000 were 
employed on labour projects. Thus, including the 
families of these labourers, a total of 10,000,000 relieved 
by the Commission is certainly a conservative figure. 
The amount of earthwork done by this army of labourers 
would have built a dyke, two metres high and two metres 
thick, long enough to encircle the earth at the equator. 

In carrying out this work, the Commission had to 
overcome all manner of difficulties. A huge organiza- 
tion, involving at the height of operations an administra- 
tive staff of 7,000, had to be created and set going im- 
mediately ; labour had to be recruited and rapidly trained 
to unaccustomed tasks; care had to be taken to avoid 
wastage and duplication in the distribution of wheat; 
information had to be collected and operations conducted 
by an improvised staff; opposition from local property- 



owners had to be overcome ; workers had to be protected 
against communists and bandits. All these difficulties, 
however, were successfully met, and even the hostilities 
in Manchuria and Shanghai, which broke out during the 
most intensive part of the work, did not prevent the Com- 
mission from carrying on as usual. 

How was this immense work of relief and restoration 
financed? Operating funds for the Commission's needs 
were obtained by the imposition of a surtax on Customs 
duties. A public subscription was then opened, and so 
gratifying was the response that a sum of $1,000,000 was 
raised in the first week, and eventually reached a total 
in excess of $7,500,000. 

The funds derived from these various sources, how- 
ever, would have been altogether insufficient for the Com- 
mission's requirements without the purchase on credit at 
a low rate of interest of nearly 450,000 tons of wheat and 
flour from the Government of the United States. As the 
Report shows, this loan was rendered all the more effec- 
tive by the American Government's agreement to the sale 
of a portion of the wheat and flour for cash. In all, the 
Commission administered in cash and in kind nearly 
$70,000,000. 

Many governments, organizations, both public and 
private, and individuals also associated themselves with 
the work of the Commission by making gifts in kind, 
particularly drugs and medical supplies. The Commis- 
sion was also helped by a large number of voluntary 
workers, and received the full or part time assistance of 
the personnel of government departments, both national 
and local, missions, educational institutions and philan- 
thropic organizations. 

The Commission desires me to place on record its 
sense of deep obligation to all those who so generously 
contributed funds, supplies and services, and its ap- 
preciation of the devotion and loyalty of its staff. Their 
help and co-operation enabled the Commission to win 
its race against time and made possible the record har- 
vests of 1932 and 1933. . 

T. V. SOONG, Chairman, 

National Flood Relief Commission. 



CHAPTER I 

The Flood of 1931 

Literature refers to the "Kiang-Hwai-Ho-Han" as the 
four main waterways in Central China. Three of the 
four were in flood in 1931, and even the fourth, "Ho/' 
(Yellow) broke its banks in places. 

Modern geographies, however, consider two of these 
ancient rivers, "Kiang Han," as parts of the same 
system, the Yangtze, which is one of the largest rivers in 
the world. It rises in the table-land of Tibet at an al- 
titude of 16,000 feet above sea level and flows in a 
direction generally easterly over 4,000 kilometres to the 
sea. It has many large tributaries and the vast area of 
the watershed of the main river and its tributaries 
reaches two million square kilometres. 

In the early months of 1931 abnormal rain fell Causes of 

J the Flood 

in the lower Yangtze basin and threw a slowly in- 
creasing load on the tributaries of the river and, 
in turn, on the main river itself. This unusually 
heavy precipitation over a long period reached its 
climax in July and early August, when severe cloud- 
bursts occurred over an extensive portion of the 
watershed. The amount of rainfall on the day of 
heaviest precipitation has been calculated at 850,000 
cubic metres per second. On the day preceding and 
the day following that of maximum rainfall, the pre- 
cipitation though less in extent was also enormous. At 
that time the ground and air were both already saturat- 
ed ; thus, comparatively little was absorbed and the bulk 



NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 



Discharge of the 
Yangtze during 
the 1931 Flood 



Table of Maxi- 
mum Gauge 
Heights 



of the water eventually found its way into the Yangtze 
River. Fortunately not all the rainfall found its way 
to that river on the day of precipitation ; had that hap- 
pened, all the great cities along the course of the river 
would have been wiped out of existence. 

* The bund at Hankow is fifty feet above normal low 
water level, and the discharging capacity of the Yangtze 
River at that level at Hankow is 56,500 cubic metres 
per second. However on the 19th of August, following 
the great storm, the river rose to a height of 3.6 feet 
above bund level, and its waters were discharged at a 
rate of 67,000 cubic metres per second. All areas un- 
protected by dykes exceeding 53.6 feet above low water 
level were inundated, including the city of Hankow 
itself, which lay on an average, four to eight feet below 
this high water level. An enormous area in the Yangtze 
Valley also became flooded. 

The mean high water level at Hankow for the sixty- 
three years from 1868 to 1931, during which records had 
been kept, is 44.13 feet. The high water level of 1931 
was 53.6 feet, and is the highest on record. The next 
highest was 50.5 feet in 1870. 1 

The bed of the Yangtze River is contracted into a 
bottle neck above Kiukiang. Below this contraction of 
the river valley the flood naturally rose less rapidly than 
it did above that point. In fact the flood reached its 
maximum at Hankow on August 19th whereas ^it did not 
reach its maximum at Nanking until September 16th. 



1 See Appendix I 1 



HANKOW WATER LEVELS 



Diagram Prepared By 



NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

SHANGHAI 
Sept. 1931. 




NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 



Discharge of the 
Yangtze during 
the 1931 Flood 



Table of Maxi- 
mum Gauge 
Heights 



of the water eventually found its way into the Yangtze 
River. Fortunately not all the rainfall found its way 
to that river on the day of precipitation ; had that hap- 
pened, all the great cities along the course of the river 
would have been wiped out of existence. 

* The bund at Hankow is fifty feet above normal low 
water level, and the discharging capacity of the Yangtze 
River at that level at Hankow is 56,500 cubic metres 
per second. However on the 19th of August, following 
the great storm, the river rose to a height of 3.6 feet 
above bund level, and its waters were discharged at a 
rate of 67,000 cubic metres per second. All areas un- 
protected by dykes exceeding 53.6 feet above low water 
level were inundated, including the city of Hankow 
itself, which lay on an average, four to eight feet below 
this high water level. An enormous area in the Yangtze 
Valley also became flooded. 

The mean high water level at Hankow for the sixty- 
three years from 1868 to 1931, during which records had 
been kept, is 44.13 feet. The high water level of 1931 
was 53.6 feet, and is the highest on record. The next 
highest was 50.5 feet in 1870. 1 

The bed of the Yangtze River is contracted into a 
bottle neck above Kiukiang. Below this contraction of 
the river valley the flood naturally rose less rapidly than 
it did above that point. In fact the flood reached its 
maximum at Hankow on August 19th whereas ^it did not 
reach its maximum at Nanking until September 16th. 



1 See Appendix I 1 



THE FLOOD OP 1931 ! 

It is interesting to note the extreme slowness of the 
progress of the apex of the flood down the river from 
Chungking to Nanking. This may be studied in Ap- 
pendix I - 2 which shows the maximum heights of the 
river level^ at various stations during the time of the 
flood of 1931. 

Map 1, printed with the Appendices, gives a Extent of Flood 
graphic idea of the extent of the gigantic flood 
of 1931, It extended from the Yellow Sea in 
Kiangsu Province to Chinkiang on the Yangtze, and up 
the Yangtze River nearly to Shasi in Hupeh Province, 
a total distance of nine hundred miles. From the Grand 
Canal it stretched far up the Hwai River into Honan 
Province, a distance of four hundred and fifty miles. 
From Shasi it spread one hundred and twenty miles to 
the south including the Tungting Lake country in Hunan 
Province, and from Kiukiang it reached one hundred 
miles south in the region of the Poyang Lake. In addi- 
tion, everywhere the rivers flooded back up their 
numerous tributaries and thus inundated vast additional 
areas. 

The flooded areas were mapped in the first in- 
stance by aerial survey executed by engineers of the 
Yangtze River Commission and of the map office of the 
Chinese army, which placed their respective engineers 
at the service of the National Flood Relief Commission. 
Later, Colonel and Mrs. Charles A. Lindberg and the 
Air Force of the British Navy also assisted in the aerial 
survey. From these surveys it was calculated at that 
time that the total flooded area approximated 88,000 
square kilometres, (34,000 square miles), with an addi- 



NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

tional 20,000 square kilometres (7,700 square miles), 
less seriously flooded. Since then, however, more detail- 
ed surveys have been made. 

At the time of preparation of the first map no data 
were available showing the extent and seriousness of 
the flood in Honan and northwest Anhwei. The revised 
map includes information regarding these two regions. 
The final figures concerning the extent of the flood shorw 
that 169,000 square kilometres (65,000 square miles), 
exclusive of the lakes, were seriously flooded, in addition 
to at least 12,500 square kilometres (5,000 square miles) 
less seriously. This is an area approximately equal to 
the whole of England plus half of Scotland or to New 
York, New Jersey and Connecticut combined. It is, in 
fact, true to say that the Central China Flood of 1931 
is the greatest flood on historical record. 

other Flooded A large area in northern Kiangsu, east of 

reas the Grand Canal, was also very seriously flood- 

ed. The important town of Hsingwha is at its 
centre. The whole of this area is low-lying and is 
subject, on its eastern seaboard, to inundation of salt 
water from the ocean at high tide. A sea dyke has been 
constructed along the eastern boundary, but where this 
dyke is pierced by rivers the sea came in and flooded a 
large area of the hinterland with salt water. This is 
notably the case on the Hotu, Chu, Wang Chia, and Tou 
Lung channels. 

In the Hwai Valley, numerous small streams, vary- 
ing in size and capacity, discharge directly into the Hwai 
River on its northern bank. In time of high water the 



THE FLOOD OF 1931 5 

Hwai River backs up these tributaries and floods large 
areas of rich agricultural land. In order to protect this 
land it has been the custom to construct dams across 
these streams, but this custom results in the creation of 
lakes of considerable size through impounding the 
natural flow, and accounts for the large area flooded in 
1931. Thus in the Hwai Valley and in northern Kiangsu 
an area practically equal in extent to that along the 
Yangtze and its tributaries was also flooded. In Honan 
the flood was an extension of that in the Hwai River 
Valley, and, in addition, the Yellow River breached its 
banks a short distance to the east of Loyang. 

According to the best authorities, the Mississippi comparison with 

7 ^^ the Mississippi 

Flood of 1927 affected an area of 20,000 to 26,000 square Flood of 1927 
miles, and during that flood 600,000 people were render- 
ed homeless and several hundred were drowned. Thus 
the Central China Flood of 1931 covered an area about 
treble in extent that inundated in the greatest Mississippi 
flood on record, while the numbers directly affected and 
the loss of life in the case of the China flood were incom- 
parably greater. Scientific enquiry indicates that the 
death roll from drowning in the flooded area of China 
in 1931 approximated 140,000, and the total population 
affected was over 25,000,000.' The American Nation- 
al Red Cross has described the Mississippi River 
Flood of 1927 as the greatest disaster America ever 
suffered in the destruction of property and in damage to 
economic and social life. How much more forcibly 
would a similar statement apply to the flood which visited 
Central China in 1931. 

i Vide Appendix 1-3 



NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

f At the re Q uest of the Chairman of the Com- 

mission, the Department of Economics of the College 
of Agriculture and Forestry in the University of 
Nanking carried out an economic survey of the 
effect of the 1931 flood. 1 As a result of this 
enquiry it was estimated that the total farm 
population affected by the flood was, as stated 
above, over twenty-five million, a number approximately 
equal to the entire agricultural population of the United 
States. In the flooded area, of all farm buildings, forty- 
five per cent were destroyed; of all persons, forty per 
cent were forced to migrate for the greater part of the 
winter, either to high land in the vicinity, or to other 
hsiens; and, on the average, flooded houses were unin- 
habitable for fifty-one days. The average maximum 
depth of inundation of the fields was nine feet. The 
total loss in the affected area was calculated at two 
thousand, million dollars, and when it is borne in mind 
that the annual earnings of an average farm family are 
about three hundred dollars, the severity of the loss to 
the individual fanner is readily apparent. 

The number of deaths from drowning was found to 
be very much smaller than was commonly reported at 
the time of the flood. The loss of life was smaller than 
might have been expected, owing to the fact that the 
country is intersected in all directions by canals and 
creeks, and that in every village there are boats and 

1 The 1931 Flood in China: An Economic Survey by the Department of 
Agricultural Economics, University of Nanking. Published by Univer- 
sity of Nanking. Nanking, China, 1932. Printed at the Sign of the 
Willow Pattern, Shanghai, 9x6 inches 74 pages and map. For sale in 
China at bookstores. Price $2.00 Chinese currency. For sale in U.S.A. 
at Universiy of Nanking, 150 Fifth Avenue, New York City at U.S. $1.00 
postpaid. 




1. The extended ovej* an urea of 70,000 square miles. 




2. The >rater stood live feet deep at the Bund, Hankow. 







tfjsfa'. * ., 

BflgB44&&P*4* 

^flBW^Wa; 

^'^pwi^^^ 



3. A city a in 




4. Nearly half of the farm buildings in the Hooded area were destroyed 



THE FLOOD OF 1931 7 

sampans which were available when the population had 
to escape. Probably the most serious individual in- 
stance of loss of life occurred at Kaoyu, when both banks 
of the Grand Canal were breached in the middle of the 
night, and the water of the Kaoyu Lake poured through 
the town and swept some two thousand people to des- 
truction in the course of a few minutes. 

In the destruction of property, in the menace to 
public health, in the paralysis of economic and social 
life, and in the widespread misery which it caused, the 
Central China Flood of 1931 stands out as the greatest 
nautral disaster this country has ever suffered. It is 
one of the greatest catastrophes from natural causes in 
the history of the world. 

In the main the flood was due to the overtopping Maximum water 

^^ Theoretical 

of dykes throughout long distances, to extensive Level Had Dykes 

* Not Broken 

breaches in dykes, or to complete erosion of dykes. 
As a result, water that normally would have been 
confined by the dyke barriers on the two sides of the 
river, and that thus would have been compelled to flow 
out to sea, instead spread over the country. Manifestly, 
if the dykes had been high enough and had not given 
way, and the water had thus been compelled to flow 
down between them to the sea, the river would have 
had to rise to a height above its actual 1931 flood level. 
The question then arises as to what this height would 
have been. The answer to this question is rendered ex- 
ceedingly difficult owing to the absence of data necessary 
for computation, but a calculation made from the data 
available shows that, had the dykes not broken, and had 
they been high enough, the flood level at Hankow would 



8 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

have been 57 feet instead of the actual 53.6 feet recorded 
at that city. 

Much was said and written at the time suggesting, 
or indeed definitely alleging, that the flood had been 
caused by neglect of the dykes. Without entering upon 
any controversy concerning the upkeep of the dykes, it 
should be understood that the policy followed in China, 
as in other countries, has not been to dyke against the 
exceptional flood. Experience in many countries 
establishes the fact that great floods are not of frequent 
occurrence. On the Danube, for instance, the greatest 
flood of the last nine hundred years was in 1501; the 
second greatest in 1910. On the Tiber the greatest flood 
on record was in 1598. During the last four hundred 
years the greatest flood in Paris was in 1658, and on the 
Yangtze itself the previous greatest flood was in 1870, 
sixty-one years before the flood now under considera- 
tion. 1 

Methods of Many plans have been considered by en- 

Protection . 4. * 4. 4. * j / 

gineers for protection against great floods of river 
areas. The Mississippi offers a close parallel to 
the Yangtze, and the question of protection has 
been considered in great detail in connection with 
the former river. A number of schemes have been pro- 
posed or examined, 2 as, for instance, annual dredging of 
the river, a method which in the case of the Yangtze is 
clearly impracticable; construction of side channels; 
widening the river bed ; straightening the channel of the 
river ; afforestation ; construction of detention reservoirs ; 

1 Vide Appendix 1-1 

2 Vide Jadwin Report (U.S. Army), on the Mississippi Flood. Engineering 
Record December, 1927. 



THE FLOOD OF 1931 

basin storage; additional dyke work. Finally, the 
course which was adopted, as the most practicable 
scheme, was a combination of dykes and the utilization 
of parallel rivers. There is, however, no river parallel 
to the Yangtze which could be used to carry excess water 
discharged into it, and thus, by nature, the Yangtze is 
itself forced to discharge its flood waters between 
dykes, with such assistance from basin storage as border- 
ing lakes can yield. Reservoirs lose a large part of their 
effectiveness unless they are kept empty until required 
and the difficulty of obtaining large sites for reservoirs is 
obvious. 

These considerations and this authoritative testi- 
mony are conclusive on the point that no governmental 
indifference or inefficiency is to be charged with the 
Yangtze flood of 1931. 

Immediately after the flood occurred the Inspector 
General of Customs made an inspection of the Yangtze 
Valley and submitted a report, from which the following 
is extracted : 

While we have thus seen that the abnormal rainfall in the 
Yangtze districts was the main cause of the flood, it should be 
remembered that there are extensive riparian areas, etc., bounded 
to the north by the Yangtze and to the south by the Siang River 
and the Tungting Lake, which normally flood annually and form 
the natural safety-valve when the river has risen to a certain 
level. 

Afforestation on a large scale might reduce the danger of 
serious floods, but cannot be developed for many years, and in the 
- meantime it is essential that the Yangtze Valley should be con- 
trolled by one central flood prevention authority, that should be 
empowered to arrange for effective dyking of areas of refuge 
at frequent intervals on the river banks, allowing the rising 
waters to overflow the banks in certain other places, as much as 
may be necessary to regulate the height of the river, and thus 



10 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

preserve from inundation large cities and densely populated 
districts. Normal floods, properly controlled, are not wholly 
destructive, and can be used to the advantage of the people, as 
the periodical flooding of different localities fertilises and 
gradually raises the soil. The whole of the plain from Ichang to 
the sea, for example, is alluvial, having in the past been raised 
to its present level in this manner by floods and silt deposit, and 
any attempt unduly to upset nature's action in this direction may 
occasion grave risks. In other words, if a too elaborate system 
of dykes is devised the high water level of the river, as in the case 
of the Yellow River and the Mississippi, will eventually be raised 
to abnormal heights above the level of the plain, with disastrous 
results." 

"It is fitting to state, incidentally, that the general system of 
dykes on the river has been moderately well conceived from each 
locality's point of view and for normal conditions. Their con- 
struction was satisfactorily executed in the first instance, but 
notwithstanding their local importance, they have in some cases 
been permitted to fall into a state of disrepair, and the present 
official control over them, as already indicated, is inadequate." 

Summary of The University of Nanking survey, mentioned above, 

estimated the value of the crop destroyed by the flood at 
$900,000,000. Long before this confirmation was receiv- 
ed, those familiar with the subject were aware of the fact 
that the Yangtze Valley faced a serious food short- 
age at that juncture. Without a fairly complete re- 
storation of the dyke system this shortage would become 
perennial. The Government was therefore faced with 
a threefold problem: d) the relief of several 
million families driven from their homes and close to 
destitution, (2) the remedy of a food shortage which 
threatened serious hardship to the otherwise self- 
sufficient remaining population and (s) the restoration 
of an elaborate dyke system, which had been almost 
completely swept away. 

How this problem was solved is described in the fol- 
lowing chapters. 



CHAPTER II 

Organization and Finance 

It rapidly became apparent that the flood was a creation of the 
disaster of the first magnitude, and on August 14th 1931 Commlsslon 
the National Government established the National Flood 
Relief Commission to deal with the emergency. The 
Commission was created by a mandate from the National 
Government to the Executive Yuan which reads as 
follows : 

"Having received from various Provinces reports about 
the flood and serious losses to its victims, the Government 
ordered the Executive Yuan to despatch officials to make a 
thorough investigation and suggest plans for relief. The extent 
of the areas affected and the magnitude of the disaster have 
been without precedent for the last hundred years. Matters 
such as emergency relief, rehabilitation and constructive 
measures to prevent recurrence of such calamities in future 
should be given adequate consideration and put into effect by 
enlisting all available resources, and by the application of 
expert knowledge. The National Government hereby creates 
the National Flood Relief Commission and Mr. Soong Tze Vung, 
Hsu Shih Ying, Liu Shang Ching, Kung Hsiang Hsi and Chu 
Ching Lan are appointed members with Mr. Soong Tze Vung as 
Chairman. 

The above named members are to devise immediate plans 
for relief and put them into operation in conformity with the 
Government's solicitude for the welfare of the sufferers/' 

Of the members, Mr, T. V. Soong was Vice-President 
of -the Executive Yuan and Minister of Finance, Mr. Hsu 
Shih Ying, Chairman of the National Famine Relief 
Commission, Mr. Liu Shang Ching, Minister of the 
Interior, Mr. Kung Hsiang Hsi, Minister of Industry, 



12 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

and General Chu Ching Lan, a well known philan- 
thropist. 

organization of Immediate steps were taken both to organize the 

the Commission r 

Commission and to formulate plans for the execution of 
its task. On August 17th, two days after the mandate 
creating the National Flood Relief Commission was 
received, the Commissioners drafted rules to govern 
their internal organization and recommended them to 
the Government for approval. These rules provided that 
the Commission should be enlarged by the addition of 
specially qualified persons, both Chinese and foreign; 
that the accounts should be audited ; and that, in addition 
to the Secretariat, a Standing Committee be appointed 
composed of the chiefs of the various departments and 
certain other specially appointed members. The depart- 
ments created were seven in all, namely, Information, 
Finance, Audit and Accounts, Hygiene and Sanitation, 
Field Operations, Transportation, and Co-ordination of 
Private Charities. These regulations were approved by 
the National Government on August 22nd. 1 

Affairs moved so rapidly that at the first plenary 
meeting of the Commission, held on September 9th 
1931, the Chairman was able to announce that the Com- 
mission's organization had been completed, and to re- 
quest that these appointments be confirmed. 2 



Collection of 
Information as 
to the Flood 



The first information with respect to the flood came 
from press reports and from telegrams sent in by 
officials. In the nature of things this information came 
only from the larger centres. The facts regarding the 



1 Vide Appendix II-l 

2 Vide Appendix II-3 



ORGANIZATION AND FINANCE IS 

agricultural districts with their teeming peasant popula- 
tion, in the aggregate infinitely more numerous than that 
of the towns, were left to the imagination. The Commis- 
sion took steps to remedy this weakness, and arranged 
for immediate reports by wire and periodical reports by 
mail from Government departments, from hsicn 
magistrates, and other local authorities, from local or- 
ganizations of all kinds, from missionaries whose 
stations were scattered all over the flooded area, from 
branches of banks and commercial firms. 

The amount of information received was very large 
and of great value, as it enabled the Commission to form 
a sufficiently adequate idea of the dimensions and ser- 
iousness of the catastrophe. Some of the reports were 
accompanied by maps of the various districts, on which 
the approximate limits of the flooded area were indicat- 
ed. Those were of great assistance, and amplified the 
general description of conditions, which had been obtain- 
ed by the aerial survey described in Chapter I. 

Simultaneously with the arrangements for internal 
organization, the Commission was engaged in devising 
measures of relief for the affected regions. Naturally, 
the adequacy of these measures must depend upon the 
resources which the National Government could con- 
centrate for the work. Two million dollars of Salt Bonds 
had already been appropriated to emergency relief, and 
this fund was entrusted to the National Famine Relief 
Commission, which, being a permanent Government or- 
ganization, was in a position to act before the Flood 
Relief Commission could commence operations in the 
field. On the security of these bonds the National 



14 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

Famine Relief Commission had obtained from the banks 
a cash advance of one million dollars. This amount was 
apportioned as follows: To Hupeh, Hunan and An- 
hwei $170,000 each; to Kiangsu, Honan and Kiangsi 
$130,000 each ; to Chekiang $80,000 ; for medical work 
$20,000. 

u f> lic . ^. The Finance Department of the National Flood 

Subscriptions ,.,... 

Relief Commission immediately initiated a campaign for 
subscriptions. It passed the following resolutions: 

1. That the Government be petitioned to issue orders to the 
Departments and institutions that a certain percentage 
of all salaries should be contributed to the relief funds. 

2. That an appeal for subscriptions be made to prominent 
Chinese and foreigners as well as to organizations. 

3. That local Chinese and foreign banks be requested to 
serve as collection agents. 

4. That branch Committees be established in all Provinces 
to appeal for funds. 

5. That over-seas Chinese be requested to establish branch 
Committees with the object of raising subscriptions. 

6. That subscriptions be solicited through advertisements 
in the Chinese and foreign press. 

To this appeal there was a cordial response from 
people of all classes, individual subscriptions ranging 
from $300,000 to $1, the latter sum being subscribed 
by a prisoner under sentence of death in the Soochow 
prison. During the first week the Commission received 
over one million dollars in subscriptions. Altogether the 
Commission received $7,459,817.46 dollars in subscrip- 

As of March 31, 1933 



ORGANIZATION AND FINANCE 15 

tions. In addition to these cash contributions, there were 
large contributions both from abroad and from domestic 
sources in the form of medicines, serums, vaccines and 
disinfectants, rice, prepared food supplies, clothing, 
stationery and printing, soap and blankets. Lists of 
contributions were published periodically in the press 
and a complete list will accompany this report. 

When it is remembered that in addition to subscrip- 
tions received by the Commission, large, but unknown, 
amounts were expended by private charitable organiza- 
tions on flood relief, and also that a sum of $454,000 was 
subscribed in America and in Great Britain between the 
months of March and June 1932, (applied specially 
to the famine areas of North Anhwei and of Honan) 
the widespread and generous interest aroused in the 
public mind by this catastrophic flood can be appreciated. 

It was seen that subscriptions alone would be entire- jy hea * urcha6e 

r Negotiations 

ly inadequate to provide sufficient funds to meet the re- 
quirements of flood relief, and the Chairman of the 
Commission as Minister of Finance had to find means to 
supply the Commission with the funds necessary. 

On August 15th, the day following the establish- 
ment of the Commission, he officially initiated negotia- 
tions which had already been discussed informally for 
the purchase of a very large amount of American wheat, 
to be devoted exclusively to relief work. 

On September 25th 1931, these negotiations 
resulted in signing an Agreement. 1 By this Agreement 
the Grain Stabilization Corporation, with the approval of 

1 Vide Appendix 1 1-4 



16 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

the Federal Farm Board, agreed to sell and the Chinese 
Government agreed to buy 450,000 short tons of No. 2 
western white wheat, to be loaded in bulk at United 
States Pacific Coast ports. It was agreed that the Grain 
Stabilization Corporation should have the option of ship- 
ping not more than half the quantity in the form of flour 
at a comparative price. It was also agreed that the price 
for each shipment should be the current market price 
F.O.B. at the port of loading on the day of issue of ocean 
Bills of Lading. 

As to payment, it was agreed that obligations of the 
National Government bearing the same dates as the 
Bills of Lading should be delivered to the Grain 
Stabilization Corporation, that these obligations should 
bear interest at the rate of 4 per cent per annum, 
payable on June 30th and December 1st of each year, 
and that of the capital sum, one third be paid on 
December 31st, 1934, one third on December 31st 1935, 
and the balance on December 31st 1936. 

The conditions of the Agreement provided that open 
tenders for ocean carrying freight should be invited, and 
that, other conditions being equal, American vessels 
should be used for the transportation of the wheat and 
flour. It was finally agreed that arrangements for ship- 
ping should be made by the buyer under conditions 
approved by the American Commercial Attache at 
Shanghai, designated to act for the seller. 

Mr. F. B. Lynch was appointed to take charge of 
ocean shipping. After considerable inquiry into methods 
and rates, the Standing Committee at its meeting on 
October 5th 1931, approved a contract for the shipment 



ORGANIZATION AND FINANCE 17 

of American wheat with Messrs. L. Everett Incorporated, 
who acted on behalf of Messrs. W. L. Comyn and Sons 
of Seattle. The agreement provided for transportation 
at the rate of gold $3 per ton for wheat and gold $3.50 
per ton for flour, on the basis of shipments delivered at 
Shanghai, freight being prepaid. This agreement also 
stipulated that a first irrevocable credit in the sum of 
gold $400,000 was to be established in favor of the 
shipping contractor, immediately on acceptance of the 
offer, and that subsequent irrevocable letters of credit, 
each in the sum of gold $200,000 were to be opened from 
month to month for the balance of the freight carrying 
contract. At the request of the Commission the Central 
Bank of China made the necessary arrangements that 
these credits might be available in New York as required. 
Messrs. Balfour Guthrie & Co., Ltd., were appointed 
loading agents of the Commission, and were charged 
with inspection of steamers, as well as of the quality of 
the wheat and flour at port of loading. They also had 
to check prices and weights. 

Negotiations were initiated on September 7th 1931, Italian 
for a grant from the Italian portion of the 1901 In- iferSon 
demnity, which should be devoted toward purchase of 
tools and implements for use in the work of dyke repair. 
These negotiations were successful and led to the con- 
clusion of a formal agreement signed on October 26th 
1931, by the terms of which the Italian Government 
remitted U.S. $200,000 out of the Italian portion of the 
Boxer Indemnity for purchase of tools in Italy. 

To supply operating funds, a bond issue was planned. Flood Relief 
On September llth 1931, sanction was accorded to the 



18 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

issue of $80,000,000 of Loan Bonds, secured on the salt 
revenue. Article II of the regulations governing this 
loan issue provided that the proceeds were to be devoted 
towards emergency and labor relief, and the purchase 
of relief grain. It was planned to make a preliminary 
issue of $30,000,000 of bonds, and to use the proceeds to 
move the wheat and flour, and to meet operating ex- 
penditure for relief in the devastated regions. 

On September 18th 1931, however, the Japanese 
made their attack at Mukden, and their operations ex- 
tended rapidly to other parts of the Three Eastern 
Provinces. The immediate result was a state of 
psychological and political turmoil throughout the whole 
of China, and the consequences to economic life were far 
reaching. The bond market was at once seriously de- 
pressed, and it proved inadvisable, indeed impossible, 
to place the Flood Relief Bonds on the market. The 
finances of the Commission were thus thrown into a state 
of complete uncertainty. 

Customs Nevertheless, the demand for funds for relief projects 

was insistent, and the Relief Bonds were replaced by a 
surtax on the Customs Duties, effective from December 
1st 1931, for a period of eight months. The 
proposal of the Minister of Finance that a surtax be im- 
posed was approved in principle by the Central Political 
Council on October 28th 1931. The rate of surtax was 
fixed at 10 per cent with effect from December 1st 
1931 to July 31st 1932 and thereafter at 5 per cent 
"until the date of the complete liquidation of the 
American wheat loan". It was further stipulated that 
the proceeds of the 5 per cent surtax should be applied 



ORGANIZATION AND FINANCE 19 

to the payment of interest and redemption of principal 
of that loan. 1 The total yield of this surtax up to July 
31st 1932, was $15,374,315.54. 

Money was, however, immediately required, and the Arrangement* 
Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation agreed, 
on December 1st 1931, to an advance up to 140,000 
sterling, (equivalent to about $2,000,000), on the secur- 
ity of the surtax, the advance to carry interest at 
7 per cent per annum on the amount actually drawn. 
In addition, a temporary advance of $1,500,000 was 
obtained from the National Sinking Fund Committee on 
the security of the unissued Relief Bonds. 

The initiation of actual relief, however, did not wait 
upon the completion of the financial arrangements nor 
the final signature of the wheat purchase agreement. 
Complete reliance was placed upon the ability of the 
Government ultimately to make available the necessary 
means. Even before some of the newly appointed de- 
partment heads had arrived to assume charge, steps were 
taken to prepare the foundations of their activities. 

In view of the unexampled magnitude of the task Appointment 

^ of Director 

of relief, it was felt that steps should be taken to obtain General 
the services of an expert, who could handle the adminis- 
trative problems connected with questions of relief and 
rehabilitation. The League of Nations was consulted 
and on its advice, the National Government invited Sir 
John Hope Simpson, formerly of the Indian Civil 
Service, who had years of experience of relief work in 
India and subsequently in Greece, to come to China in 

1 Vide Appendix II-5 



20 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

order to assist the Commission. He arrived in Shanghai 
on October 20th 1931, and the Commission's regulations 
were subsequently amended so as to make possible his 
appointment as vice-Chairman and Director General 1 

Development in Thereafter the organization of the Commission was 

organization further developed. A committee known as the Inland 
Transportation Committee, consisting entirely of business 
men with shipping interests, was created to co-ordinate 
ocean shipping and inland transportation. In addition to 
the three Divisions, Emergency Relief, Engineering and 
Labour Relief and Farm Rehabilitation in the Field 
Operations Department, a Commissary Division and an 
Inspectorate were organized and included in the same 
Department. After arrangements had been made per- 
mitting the sale of wheat and flour, a Grain Exchange 
Committee was established to control sales and to have 
custody of the funds. 

Originally, the work of Audit and Accounts had 
been centralized in one Department under an Audit 
Committee. Experience proved that this arrangement 
was unsatisfactory and inconvenient; consequently, 
accounts were separated from this Department and a 
special Accounts Division was created. The work of 
audit was entrusted by the Audit Department to the firm 
of Shu-Lun Pan and Company, Chartered Accountants. 

The organization of headquarters was thus complet- 
ed, and that in the field developed as work proceeded. 
The general policy of the Commission, however, had been 
formulated at a much earlier date. The Chairman did 
not wait for the completion of the negotiations for the 

1 Vide Appendix II-2 



ORGANIZATION AND FINANCE 21 

wheat purchase, nor for that of the financial arrange- 
ments, but, with confidence that these matters would be 
satisfactorily concluded, called the first plenary meeting 
of the Commission on September 9th 1931, only three 
weeks after it had been constituted by government 
mandate. 

At that meeting, in the course of his speech, the 
Chairman made a preliminary estimate of the resources 
which would be at the disposal of the Commission in 
cash and in kind. The total amounted to $70,000,000, 
and it is interesting to note at the completion of the work 
how remarkably accurate this forecast proved to be. 

The policy which was to guide the Commission, both 
in organization and in operation, was announced by the 
Chairman in the following words: 

"I believe I am correct in saying that very few of us have 
any experience in famine relief, certainly none has ever handled 
a relief problem nearly as large as the present one. It staggers 
our imagination and goes beyond our ordinary conceptions. Old 
methods of dealing with flood relief will have to go by the board, 
and we have to strike out for ourselves and adopt a policy as best 
we may. 

"What is the problem before us, and what is our pro- 
gramme? Just because the need is so great and the problem 
so difficult we must be careful not to get beyond certain prac- 
ticable limits. There are suggestions of dredging the Yangtze 
River, there are suggestions for improving the Hwai River, but 
to handle these two problems or to handle either separately 
would call for the expenditure of hundreds of millions of dollars, 
which the Commission does not have. And even if we had the 
money, we have not the technical engineering resources avail- 



22 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

able for the harnessing of such huge volumes of water. The 
experience of the United States, which has spent hundreds of 
millions of gold dollars on the Mississippi, shows that the richest 
country in the world has not been able to control the course of 
a river whose flood waters are far smaller than those of the 
Yangtze. 

"What then is our objective? Your different sub- 
committees have exchanged opinions, and very roughly, our 
suggestion for an answer is this. In the first place, let us do 
our best to give immediate relief to the victims of the floods by 
giving them food, shelter and health protection. In the second 
place, as soon as the water recedes sufficiently let us try to repair 
the dykes to the status quo ante, that is to say, to take care of 
the normal drainage of the Yangtze River. We may not know 
very much about ultimate remedies for such disasters, but all 
scientific opinion concurs that for a flood of the magnitude of 
this year, much exceeding all past records, no expenditure of 
money however large, no dykes however strong, could prevent 
the catastrophe. We conclude then, that the limited resources 
of the Commission should be used to try to repair existing 
dykes and build new dykes such as will prevent flooding during 
normal rainfall. This does not mean that the Government will 
not as soon as practicable carry through vast comprehensive 
schemes of river conservancy, but we submit that it is beyond 
the resources of this Commission. In the third place, when the 
waters recede, let us retain sufficient resources to help the 
spring sowing of the farmers, and whenever possible, to assist 
them in the rehabilitation of their farms. 

"Even the limited programme sketched above may be 
difficult with the modest resources at our disposal, but we must 
above all be prepared to cut our coats according to the cloth/' 

The commencement of major relief operations, how- 
ever, did not wait until financial arrangements were 
completed. Tentative schemes of action for the various 



ORGANIZATION AND FINANCE 23 

Departments were prepared, in some cases even before 
the heads of those Departments had arrived to assume 
charge. Representatives of headquarters were sent to 
some of the most severely affected centres with sub- 
stantial sums at their disposal, and with the particular 
object of co-ordinating local efforts to meet the 
emergency, until the larger national resources were 
available. 



CHAPTER IH 

Wheat and its Distribution 

Trans-Pacific The Agreement with the Grain Stabilization Cor- 

Movement ^ 

poration mentioned in Chapter II reserved to that body 
the option of delivering half of the 450,000 tons of wheat 
in the form of flour. Actually 225,000.006 short tons of 
wheat were delivered, and in addition 160,125.042 
short tons of flour, which, at the rate of 72.6 tons of 
flour to 100 tons of wheat, would be the equivalent of 
220,557.909 short tons of wheat. In this way, the total 
amount delivered, expressed in terms of short tons of 
wheat, was 445,557.915 tons. 1 

The wheat and flour were transported by sixty-six 
ocean steamships. As stated before, the terms of the 
purchase Agreement required the buyer to give American 
ships, if available, the preference at equal rates. Where 
regular liners offered competitive rates, it proved pos- 
sible to use American shipping. Of the 32 regular liners 
which carried wheat, 24 were American, but no American 
charters were obtainable at rates which compared with 
those obtained from British and Scandinavian owners. 
Of the 34 chartered ships which carried full cargoes, 11 
were British and 23 Scandinavian. The sum of U. S. 
$1,254,552 was the total paid by the Commission for 
freight on wheat and flour shipments. 

Marine insurance was effected through the Yangtze 
Insurance Association Ltd. The total premium thereon 
paid was U.S. $45,343.22. Payments received against 

1 Vide Appendix III-l 



WHEAT AND ITS DISTRIBUTION 25 

losses amounted to only a modest sum, no disaster 
having occurred to any of the Commission's' cargoes. 

The Agreement provided for the delivery of 90,000 
tons during September and October, 75,000 tons monthly 
from November to February inclusive, and 60,000 tons 
during March. However, the time required to settle 
details of the Agreement and of the shipping contract 
postponed the beginning of deliveries until late October. 
Storms further delayed the passage of the earliest ships, 
so that the date of the first arrival in Shanghai was 
November 15th. Thereafter deliveries were accelerated 
to such an extent that by January 31st 1932 practically 
half the total had reached Shanghai. The last shipment 
arrived May 16th 1932, only sixteen days behind the 
date fixed in the original schedule. 

It was the intention to forward several of these ocean 
vessels to Hankow. Owing to the delay indicated above 
and to a rapid fall in the river, these ships were pre- 
vented from proceeding so far. Eleven sailed as far as 
Nanking and Pukow, one to Chinkiang, one to Nantung- 
chow and one delivered cargo partly at Chinkiang, and 
partly at Nanking. The cargo of all the others was un- 
loaded at Shanghai. 

II 

By terms of the Agreement, wheat was loaded into Bags and 
vessels in bulk ex-spout from elevators. It was thus aggmg 
necessary to bag wheat on arrival at Chinese ports. At- 
tempts were made to purchase bags through open tender, 
but bids were unsatisfactory and purchases were made by 
negotiation, a considerable saving being effected. Pur- 
chases were made at various prices according to quality, 



26 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

but after an early experiment with used bags, it was 
found more economical to purchase bags of better quality 
at a higher price. A total of 1,950,000 bags was secured 
at an aggregate cost of $521,694.47. In a few cases, 
notably Pukow and Nanking, bags were returned to the 
port for use a second time. 

An attempt was also made to secure the labor re- 
quired for bagging the wheat on the basis of competitive 
bids, but it was ultimately found advantageous to make 
these arrangements by negotiation. Bagging included 
not only filling and closing the bags, but also the cost of 
the hemp for sewing, and in addition a guarantee to bag 
not less than 1,200 long tons per day of ten hours on ships 
discharging by five or more hatches. The greater portion 
of the bagging was done by the firm Ah Foo, but at Pu- 
kow local labor insisted upon its right to do the work, 
at considerably higher prices. The total tonnage of 
wheat discharged for the Commission's account (wheat 
sold ex-ship was discharged by the purchasers 1 ) was 
140,286 tons in 1,766,091 bags. The total cost of bagging 
labor was $52,061.92 or an average of $0.37 per ton. 
Expenses incidental to bagging raised this average to 
about $0.46 per ton. 

up-river The Commission appointed the Inland Transporta- 

Movement . T.I 

tion Committee, composed chiefly of men engaged in the 
shipping business, to ensure that the transportation of 
the wheat and flour up the Yangtze River should be under 
expert management. All the important companies 
having ships plying the. river between Shanghai and 
Hankow belong to an informal organization known as 

1 Also one shipload by Kiangsu Provincial Authorities. 



WHEAT AND ITS DISTRIBUTION 27 

the Lower Yangtze Conference. The Inland Transporta- 
tion Committee made arrangements with this Conference 
to carry the wheat and flour belonging to the Commission 
for the following rates : 

From Shanghai Nov./Dec. Jan./Mar. 

to (High Water) (Low Water) 

Nanking or 

Chinkiang: 16 cands. per picul 16 cands. per picul 

Pukow 18 18 

Wuhu 21 26 

Kiukiang 25 30 

Hankow 25 30 

In both cases, these rates included stevedorage in and 
out, and prompt overside delivery at destination. They 
were ten to twenty per cent lower than current com- 
mercial rates upon the same commodities. The Inland 
Transportation Committee at the same time, advertised 
in the Shanghai press calling for tenders from other ship- 
ping firms and lighter owners who might wish to partici- 
pate in the business. 

Harbor regulations do not permit river ships to tie Transfer from 
up alongside ocean ships for the purpose of transferring vessels* 
cargo from one to the other. The usual practice is to 
transfer cargo to lighters, then from the lighters to on- 
carrying vessels. Some negotiations were commenced 
for the provision of this transfer service, but finally the 
Inland Transportation Committee advertised for tenders 
to cover this work, and that of arranging for space in 
steamers, chartering craft when necessary, arranging 
insurance, passing customs and "all secretarial duties of 
the Committee". The bid of L. Everett Inc., of Tls. 0.35 
per ton of 2,240 Ibs. of wheat, or Tls. 0.40 per ton of 
2,240 Ibs. of flour, was finally accepted, the bidder also 



28 



Wharf and 
Storage 
Facilities, 
Shanghai 



Programming 

up-river 

Shipments 



NATIONAL FLOOD BELIEF COMMISSION 

agreeing to perform the advertised secretarial duties free 
of charge in case his bid for lighterage were accepted. 

It early became evident that conditions would not 
permit of the organization of large labour forces on the 
dykes until after the New Year. In the meantime it was 
necessary to store considerable quantities of wheat and 
flour temporarily in Shanghai, as storage facilities at 
river ports were limited. Storage at Shanghai was also 
necessitated by the impossibility of clearing cargo as 
fast as unloaded, when the arrival of several ocean 
vessels synchronized. Arrangements were therefore 
made for the loan of the China Merchants Steam 
Navigation Company's Wharf and storage facilities at 
Pootung. Later, when these commodious godowns were 
taxed to their capacity, the loan of the adjoining 
Yangtze Wharf and godowns belonging to the Ministry 
of Communications was also obtained. In both cases, 
the Commission paid only maintenance expenses and 
salaries of the permanent staff. The berthing facilities of 
these properties assisted greatly in the discharge of cargo, 
its transhipment and despatch up river. 

It was necessary to keep in close touch with the 
requirements of the various relief forces based on the 
up-river ports, to be regularly advised as to the storage 
and discharge capacity at those ports, and to have up- 
to-date information as to river shipping. The handling 
of a ship's cargo cost approximately fifteen thousand 
dollars. Thus, every extra handling involved a loss of 
that amount. It was necessary therefore, for those in 
charge of harbour lighterage and of river trans- 
port to maintain the closest possible co-operation with 



WHEAT AND ITS DISTRIBUTION 29 

those in charge of up-river depots. In fact from the 
discharge from the ocean steamship to arrival at the 
river port, handling was a continuous process. 

At times, the facilities at Shanghai were severely Demurrage 
tried by the convergence of several ocean steamers at 
that port, but timely diversion of a ship to Chinkiang, 
Nanking or Pukow, generous offers of space by river 
lines, often at the loss of freight bearing higher rates, and 
charter of additional tonnage, combined to prevent any 
actual crisis. The co-operation of those in charge of 
ocean and river transport and of lighterage with the 
labour contractors was so complete and efficient, that only 
three days of demurrage accrued during the entire opera- 
tion. This occurred at the time of the Japanese hostilities, 
during which period the owners of one ocean ship re- 
fused to permit their vessel to proceed to Pukow as 
ordered, while at the same time the action of hostile 
craft cut off the supply of lighters. The demurrage 
would have been greater had not exceptional arrange- 
ments been made by which the transfer of cargo over- 
side directly from ocean vessel to river steamer was 
permitted for a short time. 

Against the U.S. $600 demurrage paid on that one Dispatch 
steamer, dispatch money to the extent of U.S. $7,314.10 Money 
was earned on eighteen steamers. One instance of ex- 
traordinarily rapid dispatch deserves mention. This was 
the motor-vessel Lundby which arrived on February 
17th 1932, at the height of the war operations. Three 
days later, on February 20th, her discharge was com- 
pleted. In actual time, 3.29 days were spent during which 
a total of 291,776 bags, equivalent to 7,148 short tons 



30 



Cost of up- 
river Movement 



Field 
Organization 



NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

of flour, was unloaded and carried into the godown an 
average of 2,172 tons per day. In fact, warlike opera- 
tions restricted only temporarily the activities of transfer 
and transport. February, the first month of hostilities, 
showed a reduction of 50 per cent in tonnage forwarded 
as compared with January. During the second month, 
March, the tonnage forwarded was fully 50 per cent 
greater than January, so that the average of the two 
months is actually greater than that of any other month, 
previous or subsequent. These results were accomplished 
despite the fact that during a large part of both of these 
months, harbour operations continued to the accompani- 
ment of the roar of guns and the droning of hostile aero- 
planes. 

There were in all 368 shipments by river steamer, 
and the amount of wheat and flour moved from Shanghai 
(including 4,598 tons from Nanking and 460 returned 
from Wuhu) by river steamers was 208,729 tons. The 
total cost for freight was $1,387,752.71 or an average of 
$6.65 per ton. This does not include inter-depot trans- 
fers principally by native junks (these were included 
under depot expenses), but it does include a few ship- 
ments from Shanghai to points beyond Hankow such 
as Yochow and Kienli. If insurance, lighterage and 
incidentals be included, the total cost of the up-river 
movement was $1,511,966.98 or about $7.25 per ton. 

Ill 

Responsibility for the wheat and flour, after delivery 
overside by a steamer at an up-river port, was assumed 
by the Field Operations Department. That Department 
created the Commissary Division to take delivery of 



WHEAT AND ITS DISTRIBUTION 31 

the wheat and flour at these ports and to issue it as 
needed to the Emergency Relief, Farm Rehabilitation 
and Engineering and Labour Relief Divisions. The Com- 
missary Division was not organized until the end of 
October, the delay being due in part to the uncertainty 
as to what Department should be responsible for the 
handling of the wheat after it had been discharged at 
the river ports. The conclusion of the wheat loan and 
the signing of the shipping contract brought home the 
urgent need of special machinery to take charge of this 
part of the Commission's work. After careful considera- 
tion this Division was created and Mr. J. E. Baker was 
appointed its head with orders to organize a head office 
as well as field staff. 

The three Divisions mentioned above did not work 
in identical areas. The Engineering Division directed 
its efforts principally to the main dykes along the Yang- 
tze River and its larger tributaries, along the Hwai River 
and along the Grand Canal. The Emergency and Farm 
Rehabilitation Divisions operated in the regions which 
had been flooded, but which in many instances were 
situated at a considerable distance from the channels 
of the rivers. However, in practice, the conditions of 
transport determined the location of the district centres 
of the Commissary Division, as also the boundaries of the 
territory to be served by each of such centres. 

Nantungchow, the district depot nearest to Shang- District 
hai, is located on the Yangtze River at the mouth of a 
canalized stream, which provides the only means of 
communication with the most easterly portion of north- 
ern Kiangsu. This is the point where transfer of wheat 



32 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

and flour for that area must be made from river steamer 
to canal junk. Three 1 engineering districts (Nos. 15, 16 
and 17) were served from this depot. Emergency Relief 
centres also could be reached by canal from this port. 
But in District 17 where the engineering work consisted 
of the digging of drainage channels, canal hauls had to 
be supplemented overland by ox-cart to the site of the 
work. 

Travelling up the Yangtze, the next district depot 
was Chinkiang, which is not only itself an important river 
port, but is directly opposite the junction of the Grand 
Canal with the river, and therefore a transhipment point 
like Nantungchow. Chinkiang depot served the Grand 
Canal region, including Engineering District No. 14. 

The third depot, Nanking, was important because of 
its position in the centre of Engineering District No. 1, 
and also in the Ningshu Emergency Relief Area. It was 
additionally important because it could be reached by 
ocean steamship, and from it transfers could be 
made to the railway terminus, Pukow, immediately across 
the river. The depot at Pukow was established mainly 
as a transfer station. Ocean vessels could berth there 
alongside the railway which leads to the Hwai River 
Valley. Because the available godowns and sheds on 
the Pukow side of the Yangtze were of limited capacity, 
Nanking had to be used for the storage of reserves. Pu- 
kow also served the Emergency Relief Division in the 
nearer portions of North Kiangsu and Central Anhwei. 

Pengpu, where the Tientsin-Pukow Railway crosses 
the Hwai River, was the natural headquarters for the 

1 Finally reduced to two, Nos. 16 and 17. 



WHEAT AND ITS DISTRIBUTION 33 

Hwai Valley, and for nearby hsicns served by the railway. 
Three Engineering Districts (Nos. 11, 12 and is) an( j 
Emergency Relief were supplied from Pengpu. 

Higher up the Yangtze, main depots were estab- 
lished at Wuhu, Anking and Kiukiang, each of which 
was made the headquarters of its respective District. 
These ports possess satisfactory landing and storage 
facilities and are the largest cities en route to Hankow. 
Later, Tatung, between Wuhu and Anking, was added, 
in order to avoid long junk hauls from Anking. 

Hankow was more than a District Headquarters. It 
was a centre from which five Engineering Districts (Nos. 
5, 6, 7, 8 and 9) and two Commissary District Head- 
quarters were supplied. The amount of storage space 
available in Hankow was very large and met all needs 
of the Division. 

Of the two Commissary District Headquarters sup- 
plied from Hankow, one was Chengchow and the other 
Yochow. Chengchow is in Honan at the junction of the 
Peiping-Hankow and the Lunghai Railways, and was 
thus the strategic centre for the work in that Province. 
Yochow is the transfer point between the Yangtze River 
and the river, lake and canal system of Hunan. In addi- 
tion, from Yochow transhipments were made at times to 
the Sixth and Seventh Engineering Districts higher up 
the Yangtze River in Hupeh. Chenglingki, close to Yo- 
chow, supplemented the latter as a transhipment point 
for those Districts. 

The number of sub-depots and distribution points Sub-depots 
through which the Commissary Division functioned was 



34 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

192, varying from three to as many as forty-one in each 
district. The determination of the number and location 
of these sub-depots and distribution points was left to 
the discretion of the District depot master, in consultation 
with the local heads of the Divisions which he was called 
upon to serve. Owing to lack of rapid communications 
between sub-depots and the District depot, it was im- 
possible for headquarters in Shanghai to exercise 
effective supervision over the sub-depots. Thus, there 
was placed upon the District depot master not only a 
serious responsibility but a very large problem in or- 
ganization. He was given full authority, under general 
orders, over all matters affecting his District, but was re- 
quired to render reports, both regular and special, as to 
his plans and the work accomplished. 

^strict In a city such as Shanghai a considerable number of 

persons are always available for employment, but not all 
have had the experience, or possess the natural qualifica- 
tions for work involving a high degree of responsibility. 
For purposes of communication it was particularly desir- 
able that the persons selected should have a working 
knowledge of both Chinese and English. Unfortunately 
not all of those available were so qualified, and inter- 
preters were necessary for those speaking only one 
language. The time available for the selection of the 
personnel was quite inadequate, and it was inevitable 
that considerable difference in organizing ability would 
be found among the men who were placed in charge of 
the various districts. 

Most of the District depot masters were 
appointed while it was still expected that a finance 



WHEAT AND ITS DISTRIBUTION 85 

officer would be attached to each important centre. 
As fidelity companies furnish bonds guaranteeing 
against embezzlement only, it was not deemed practic- 
able at first to put depot masters under bond, for they 
were intended only as custodians of property. How- 
ever, the practice of requiring "shop" guarantee for such 
employees was used as a safeguard in a number of cases 
where the appointee was not personally known. Later, 
when it was decided to make depot masters fiscal agents 
as well, bonds for all district depot masters were 
obtained from a local fidelity and guarantee company. 
Depot masters were instructed to require "shop" guar- 
antees from all their subordinates who held responsible 
positions. These guarantees are specially important in 
the case of those of lower rank, such as watchmen of 
godowns and of grain stacks. 

At the peak of operations, the Commissary Division 
employed 1,831 men on a monthly basis in main and 
sub-depots, and in addition, the work required the 
services of at least 50,000 coolies and junkmen as casual 
labourers. 1 

So far as possible, cargo arriving at a district head- District 
quarters was transferred immediately to junks or cars 
to proceed directly to sub-depots or distribution points. 
But it must be remembered that the floods had resulted 
in serious destruction of buildings, and that, even with- 
out such destruction, most villages in the interior do not 
include large buildings suitable for the storage of any 
considerable quantity of grain. Furthermore, in some 
places, they were exposed to raids by disorderly groups. 

* See Appendix III-2 



NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

There, prudence indicated that the amount stored should 
be as small as possible. For these reasons a considerable 
proportion of the wheat and flour was placed in storage 
at the District Headquarters, and was thence transported 
to the smaller places gradually and as needed. 

At the chief ports there was no difficulty in securing 
sufficient storage space in properly constructed godowns. 
At Hankow the serious depression in business experienc- 
ed during the past few years rendered it easy to obtain 
a large number of mercantile warehouses either on, or 
not far distant from, the Bund; these were rented at 
favourable rates. 

At Nanking the International Export Company had 
virtually closed down, and its excellent buildings were 
made available. 

The Hankow godowns were substantial brick struc- 
tures with corrugated iron roofs. Most of these godowns 
had ground floors composed of crushed rock to a con- 
siderable depth, making them practically rat-proof. The 
International Export warehouses at Nanking were of 
reinforced concrete throughout, the best type of construc- 
tion of its kind to be found anywhere. 

At other points as, for instance, Nantung, Chinkiang, 
Wuhu, Anking and Kiukiang the walls of the godowns 
were of brick or stone, but in many places the roofs 
were not sound and had to be repaired. In almost all 
cases, the earthen or brick floors were damp and had to 
be covered with straw, rushes or comparatively expen- 
sive planking. Except at Hankow, lack of time placed 



WHEAT AND ITS DISTRIBUTION 37 

the Division at a disadvantage in negotiations for 
economical space. 

All sorts and conditions of buildings were pressed Sub-depot 
into service as sub-depots. Occasionally a Chamber of orage 
Commerce building of brick with tiled floor was avail- 
able. Here and there a mission chapel could be found. 
Rooms in private houses were occasionally used. More 
frequently the tiled courtyard of some residence or place 
of business was occupied, and over this a roof was erect- 
ed of the usual bamboo matting supported by poles. In 
all of these cases it was necessary to cover the floors with 
wood, rushes or straw. Frequently no charge was made 
for the use of the space, the owner giving it free as his 
contribution towards the relief work. 

The greatest difficulty was experienced at distribu- 
tion points along the banks of the river. On account 
of frequent destruction by floods, as well as for reasons 
of economy, the walls of practically all structures in the 
territory between the large market towns are con- 
structed of pounded earth. Practically all the houses, 
therefore, had been swept away during the flood. 
It was thus necessary either to make use of damp, newly 
constructed, mud houses, or to store supplies in the open, 
under the cover of a double layer of mats. In some cases 
an attempt was made to dispense with storage altogether 
and to arrange for payment of workmen by a regular 
junk service from District depots or sub-depots. This 
service was, however, liable to irregularity owing to 
winds or to current, and was not always satisfactory. In 
such places the arrangements made were those dictated 
by circumstances and both limited storage and junk 



88 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

delivery were used, the latter as regularly as conditions 
permitted. 

Outdoor storage was used even at some of the dis- 
trict depots, notably in Nantungchow, This is a regular 
practice in North China, where rain and snow are in- 
frequent during the winter season. Poles are laid on the 
ground and a second layer placed crosswise; these are 
covered with mats of split bamboo. On this foundation 
bags of wheat or flour are carefully piled, the top layers 
being gradually reduced in size, so as to form a pointed 
gable. Over this a double layer of mats is placed, some- 
times with a layer of oiled paper between the mats. If 
the work is carefully done, wheat or flour can be stored 
for a few months in this manner with only slight damage. 

storage The total cost of storage was $93,547.58, an average 

of 30 cents per ton shipped up-river by ocean and river 
vessels. The total cost of storage varied between 
the districts because of amount, time in store and rates. 
The average cost per ton ranged from a negligible 
amount at Pukow, Pengpu and in Honan to almost 76 
cents at Nanking. Rates at Nanking were comparative- 
ly high and large deliveries were made there early. 
Those at Nantungchow were in fact not low, but were 
included in a total with handling and lightering charges. 

Handling A great deal of handling was involved between the 

arrival of the wheat on board ship at the river depot and 
the delivery of that wheat to the consumer. The unload- 
ing of a ship was the duty of the ship operator. From 
the wharf or the lighter, on to which the bags were placed 
by the ship operator, handling became the responsibility 
of the Commissary Division. 



WHEAT AND ITS DISTRIBUTION 39 

A bag of wheat weighs from 150 to 170 Ibs., and 
must be carried from the wharf to the storage place, 
distant sometimes as much as two hundred or three 
hundred yards. The men who do this work must be 
sturdy and habituated to it. At every port a coolie guild 
controls handling. At some ports there are several 
guilds poorly disciplined. At others, the labour may 
be handled by one single interest, which, in that way, 
has complete control of the handling activities of the 
port. But whether well or poorly organized, there is 
general agreement as to the rates which will be charged, 
and the services which will be rendered for the charge. 
As these services differ with the physical character of 
the port, it is difficult to compare the reasonableness of 
these charges at different ports. As stated earlier, at 
Nantungchow, storage and lightering were included with 
the handling charges. 

The existence of a general understanding as to rates 
does not prevent the guilds from taking advantage of 
special circumstances, or from yielding favours under 
conditions which appeal to them. Thus, for example, at 
Pukow because the cargo was for flood relief and destin- 
ed for District from which a considerable portion of the 
labourers originally came, a reduction of twenty per cent 
in coolie hire charges was made, when the work was 
about half through. At other places it is certain that 
prices were forced to abnormal heights. Because cargo 
was due to arrive within a few days after the depot 
master came on the scene, the labour leaders had him at 
their mercy. Afterwards either they felt that the price 
must be kept at its original level as a means of saving 



40 



Handling 
Costs 



Allocations 
and Deliveries 



NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

"face", or they were indifferent to the purpose to which 
the cargo was devoted. 

The total cost of handling was $620,803.36. In addi- 
tion to the effect of tonnage, this amount is influenced 
materially by the number of rehandlings required. The 
average cost per ton, $2.00, varied from nothing in Dis- 
trict No. 8 to $3.30 in Kiukiang. The low averages in 
District No. 8 and at Pengpu were due largely to the 
fact that handling coolies were paid wholly or partly in 
grain, hence the total cash payment does not reveal the 
total expense. 

With a limited supply, it was necessary to budget 
the distribution of the wheat. This was done early in the 
Field Operations Department, and the Commissary Divi- 
sion was advised as to the allocations to Provinces for 
each purpose, Emergency Relief, Farm Rehabilitation 
and Labour Relief. 1 These allocations in gross were sub- 
divided among hsicns for Emergency Relief and Farm 
Rehabilitation, and among Districts (and in some cases, 
Sections) for Engineering and Labour Relief. A study 
of the map and of local transportation routes rendered 
it possible to compute the total quantity for delivery at 
any one port. This would have been a simple matter had 
the Divisions concerned possessed, at the beginning, the 
information necessary for a final allocation of the entire 
supply. In the nature of things that was impossible, and 
from time to time each Division made additional allo- 
cations from the available reserve with the result that 

i Vide Appendix III-3 



WHEAT AND ITS DISTRIBUTION 41 

frequent revision of the schedule of deliveries was 
necessary. 1 

At the beginning of operations the main problem was 
to deliver at the District depots sufficient tonnage ; before 
the work was more than half complete, one of the 
problems was to avoid delivering too much. As the work 
progressed, it became apparent that certain Districts 
were not as needy as had been represented. In other 
cases local difficulties made it impossible to administer 
relief as rapidly as had been planned. Care was neces- 
sary to restrict supplies to such Districts to the amount 
that could be used promptly. 

Furthermore, those who received relief in kind 
naturally sold a portion in order to obtain funds for 
other necessities of life, as, for example, salt, vegetables, 
oil and clothing, or cheaper foodstuffs such as f^aoliang. 
These sales depressed market prices. If the distribution 
was in wheat, the market price of wheat went down 
while the price of flour remained high. This frequently 
led to demands for flour instead of wheat. On the other 
hand, when distributions were made in flour the price 
of flour went down, leading to a demand for wheat 
instead. Owing to the greater cash value of flour, the 
wage in flour was less in weight than the wage in wheat, 
hence, those demanding wheat had a persuasive argu- 
ment when declaring that they wished the greater bulk of 
foocj rather than the finer grade. This change of demand 
occurred frequently, with the result that sometimes wheat 
was delivered where flour was wanted, and vice versa. 
There was, however, only one case in which wheat or flour 

1 Vide Appendix III-4 



Transport 



Kail 
Transport 



NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

was actually shipped back to the original depot, because 
of change in demand. This was between the sub-depot at 
Sinti and Hankow, With this one exception the general 
principle was maintained that once a cargo was deliver- 
ed, no change would be made. Even in the Sinti case 
mentioned, the allocation to the Section was reduced by 
the amount of the expenses involved in the transfer. 

Between the District depots located along rivers and 
the sub-depots, the transportation of wheat and flour 
was principally by junk on river and canal. 

But Pengpu, the District depot serving the Hwai 
Valley could be reached only by rail, from Pukow. All 
the cargo for Honan, also, had to be transported by rail : 
some 4,800 tons of this was carried from Pukow by the 
Tientsin-Pukow and Lunghai Railways, and the equiv- 
alent of 15,000 tons from Hankow by the Peking-Han- 
kow Railway. All three of these lines also handled con- 
siderable tonnage for short distances between local 
stations. In addition, 4,350 tons were shipped by rail 
from Kiukiang to Nanchang, in order to ensure more 
rapid delivery than would have been possible by water. 
The question of the use of the Lunghai Railway from the 
port of Haichow to North Kiangsu and Honan points 
was considered, but this route was not used on account 
of coastal freight rates, the conditions governing 
transfer at Haichow and the uncertain conditions 
along the Lunghai Railway. Similarly, the use of the 
railway from Wuchang to Changsha and to points in- 
termediate was considered, but the cost of transfer from 
Hankow to Wuchang, the lack of suitable facilities for 



WHEAT AND ITS DISTRIBUTION 43 

storage at Wuchang, and the crippled condition of the 
railway, caused the abandonment of this project. 

Up to July 1st, no freights were charged by the 
railway for the transportation of relief wheat and flour, 
and a considerable amount of expense was thus saved 
to the Commission. 

As all the railways of China suffer from a lack of 
rolling stock, it was necessary for the Commission to 
request special consideration from the railways. This 
necessity was pronounced in the case of the Tientsin- 
Pukow Railway, which was called upon to transport 
about 40,000 tons to satisfy the allocations to the territory 
which it serves. Covered cars would have been prefer- 
able for the transport of wheat and flour, but under 
actual conditions the Commission was compelled to 
accept anything obtainable. In fact most of the ship- 
ments were made in open coal cars covered with matting 
in much the same manner as were the outdoor piles of 
grain. 

The cost of transportation by river or canal junk water 
varied according to conditions and to season. Speaking costs 
generally, the Commission was able to secure at the 
outset rates slightly better than those charged to foreign 
commercial companies. Owing to the absence of the 
usual rice crop, the late winter and the early spring found 
the junkmen hungry for business. In some cases, this 
resulted in revised contracts at still lower rates. In other 
cases it undoubtedly resulted in offers of rebates, and 
other forms of temptation to the Commissary represent- 
atives in charge of shipping. It is difficult to ascertain 



44 NATIONAL FLOOD BELIEF COMMISSION 

the truth of such matters; unsuccessful applicants will 
invariably bring charges, and, when confronted with the 
person accused, fail to stand by the charges. A great 
deal of bad feeling and disorganization was caused by 
this situation. 

Rates were quoted per ton for specific hauls. These 
hauls varied in distance and the length of the haul 
naturally influenced the rate. But it would be impossible 
to state a standard ton-mile cost of transportation. If 
an average rate were calculated, it would be found to vary 
from one and one-half to sixteen and one-half cents per 
ton per mile. On the river and on the canals, junks very 
rarely were hired for as little as two cents a ton per mile. 
Where steam towing was necessary, the rate was prac- 
tically double the sailing rate. The higher rate was 
economical in many cases, due to reduction of damage, 
and was absolutely essential in others, to make deliveries 
in time to keep pace with the relief labour schedule. 

Above Hankow, not only was steam towing neces- 
sary, but the tugs and launches used had to be of a 
powerful type on account of the swiftness of the current. 
Certain transport companies which did business in this 
up-river territory came to grief by using unsuitable 
equipment. On occasion the Commission was petitioned 
to share the losses of such unfortunate transportation 
companies, but uniformly took the position that the com- 
pany had voluntarily undertaken work for the Commis- 
sion at rates in competition with those charged by other 
companies, and therefore must pay the penalty for its 
own incapacity. 



WHEAT AND ITS DISTRIBUTION 45 

On the middle Yangtze River powerful tugs were 
necessary also for the reason that craft of all sorts were 
subject to frequent attacks by bandit gangs. Narrow 
escapes were reported several times, and a large pro- 
portion of the shipments was escorted by armed guards. 
On the Han River, also, rates were unduly high owing to 
the "Red" menace. Indeed, in the Ninth District, the 
furthermost portion of the Han River, except in the case 
of one consignment of 200 tons of flour, attempts at 
delivery were abandoned because the transport costs 
aggregated as much as twelve dollars per ton, inclusive 
of the cost of the armed guard. 

The Grand Canal and Hung Tze Lake route to 
northern Kiangsu proved unexpectedly expensive. The 
shallowness of the canal and of the lake was caused by 
breaches in the Grand Canal, which drained off the 
water into eastern Kiangsu, resulting in much difficulty 
to navigation. Towards spring this route became 
practically impassable, and the Commission was for- 
tunate in having made early delivery of the alloted grain 
not only to main depots, but also to the interior sub- 
depots. 

The territory north of Nantungchow is served by the 
Chwang Chang Hu Canal, but in order to improve local 
navigation many of the branch canals are cut off from 
the main canal by temporary dams. Local opposition to 
the engineering projects of the Commission prevented 
much of the work being started until the water began 
to fall ; and when the grain came to be moved from sub- 
depots to local distribution points, these dams had to be 



43 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

be replaced. In this region also a considerable part of 
the work was devoted to digging drainage canals lead- 
ing to the sea. This work required large concentrations 
of labour at points eight or ten miles distant from the 
nearest canal; thus heavy and expensive ox-cart trans- 
port was required. 

Total The total amount paid for transportation by the 

Commissary Division was $614,628.25 approximately 
$1.97 per ton delivered to river depots by river and 
by ocean vessels. This is not the total amount paid for the 
transportation of grain from depots and sub-depots to 
distribution points, for the reason that in numerous 
cases, the Emergency Relief Division took possession of 
the cargo at the district depot, supervising the movement 
to destination and paid the charges on same. This was 
the case, also, with most of the deliveries to the Hunan 
Flood Rehabilitation Committee at Yochow. Also, in the 
Hwai Valley and in the Fifth and Seventh Districts on the 
Yangtze, considerable of the transportation cost was paid 
for in flour. 

Grain Owing to difficulties of transportation, especially in 

^ e Hwai River area, and to inevitable delays in the 
arrival of relief wheat at distant points, as for instance 
in the upper reaches of the Han River, also to the fact 
that in Kiangsi and Hunan Provinces cash was found 
more useful than grain, and that everywhere cash was 
required for Farm Rehabilitation, the American Govern- 
ment was approached with a request for permission to 
exchange a certain quantity of wheat at Shanghai for 
other grains in other places. Permission was accorded 
in a letter dated December 17th, 1931, from the 



WHEAT AND ITS DISTRIBUTION 47 

American Minister to the Director General. Subsequent- 
ly, owing to warlike operations in Shanghai, and con- 
sequent difficulties of transportation, the American 
Government was again approached with a further request 
to permit the sale of grain for cash and the employment 
of the proceeds for overhead expenses and for payment 
of labour. To this request the consent of the American 
Government was conveyed by the American Legation in 
its letter dated February 17th, 1932. 

In both of these cases permission was granted on 
condition that the whole of the grain, or money received 
in exchange, should be applied to the work of relief and 
to no other purpose. In order to ensure that there should 
be no doubt as to the observance of this condition, sales 
of grain were placed in the hands of a Grain Exchange 
Committee of which General Chu Ching-lan was Chair- 
man and to which the American Commercial Attache 
nominated a representative as member. It was also 
arranged that checks on the Grain Exchange Account, 
to which the proceeds of all sales of wheat and flour 
were credited, should be drawn over the joint signature 
of the Chairman of this Committee and of the represent- 
ative of the American Commercial Attache. At a later 
stage the duty of sanctioning sales of wheat and flour 
was deputed to the Chairman of the Committee and the 
Director General, the previous arrangement being main- 
tained for the signature of checks. 

The quantity sold either at Shanghai or at main 
depots reduced by nearly one fourth the total bulk which 
otherwise must have been transported in small amounts 



48 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

to distribution points. As remittances in cash were made 
by the Grain Exchange Committee to Divisions to finance 
their operations, the former notified the Commissary 
Division, and the tonnage, represented by such remitt- 
ances, was recorded as so much delivered against the 
allocations. Considerable care was necessary lest a 
cash grant be made to some remote, inaccessible hsicn 
after full delivery had been made to the District base 
depot. 



Distribution ^ e transport f cargo from river depots and sub- 

depots to distribution points was generally under the 
jurisdiction of the Commissary Division, but again, 
practical considerations intervened. It was the original 
conception of the Commissary Division that its repre- 
sentatives should actually distribute to labourers and to 
the holders of grain tickets, the amounts of wheat and 
flour covered by those grain tickets. But in case of dis- 
tribution of Emergency Relief, it was found that the 
Commissary Division could not expand its forces rapidly 
enough to supply distributors at each and every point at 
the right moment. Accordingly the quotas for the various 
emergency centres frequently were turned over to the 
representatives of the Emergency Relief Division at 
transportation head, or at the river depot, leaving the 
actual distribution of the grain to be made by that 
Division. 

This practice was not ideal, but it must be remem- 
bered that the situation was urgent. Furthermore, the 
representatives of the Emergency Relief Division were 
local people, and familiar with routes of transportation, 



WHEAT AND ITS DISTRIBUTION 49 

while the representatives of the Commissary Division, 
being strangers, required time to learn these routes and 
their relative costs. 

The same situation arose in connection with distri- 
bution to workers on Labour Relief. Theoretically, the 
Commissary Division agents should have delivered to 
the labourers direct, the wheat and flour covered by 
certificates issued by representatives of the Engineering 
Division. There were one hundred and eighty-nine 
Engineering Sections, most of which were subdivided 
several times. In some instances, the engineering 
organization was ready to occupy the field somewhat in 
advance of the Commissary Division. In other cases, 
lack of storage and transport facilities made it impractic- 
able to maintain sub-depots in certain sections. So, in 
some sections, arrangements were made whereby wheat 
and flour were issued in bulk to engineering officers, and 
distributed to labourers by their subordinates, rather 
than by those of the Commissary Division. A great deal 
of latitude was allowed by both Divisions to their rep- 
resentatives in the field. The personal equation, 
naturally, entered largely into these arrangements. 

Before arrangements had been made with the wheat 

. to . . Certificates 

American Government permitting the unrestricted sale 
of wheat and flour, it was found that labourers were sell- 
ing a portion of their wheat or flour wages at prices 
considerably below that at which the commodity was 
valued when payment was made. This practice wasted 
the Commission's payment for the haul from the District 
depot to the distribution points as well as much of the 
labourers' capital. To avoid this loss to both parties, 



50 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

provision was made for payment in Wheat Certificates, 
each Certificate calling for 500 catties of wheat This 
the bearer might present for payment at specified sub- 
depots. The Certificates became, in effect, a currency 
by which the labourer could purchase other kinds of 
foodstuffs, clothing, tools, tobacco or whatever suited his 
fancy. Those from a distance could send the Certificates 
to their families, who could present them at the depot 
most conveniently located. However, when the sale ar- 
rangements referred to above had been effected, and 
a portion of labour wages could be paid in cash, this 
Certificate was not necessary. In the Hwai Valley, how- 
ever, it was used extensively and all of the wheat and 
flour issued to labourers was in redemption of Certifi- 
cates, the weight of flour issued being reduced in accord- 
ance with an established ratio to wheat. 

IV 

Finance As mentioned earlier, the original plan of organiza- 

tion called for the location of agents of the Finance De- 
partment in the important relief centres, these agents to 
act as treasurers and pay out against local demands 
supported by vouchers. But the actual movement of 
wheat found the Finance and the Accounting Depart- 
ments unprepared to assume these duties, and, as a result, 
it became necessary to supply the District depot masters 
with cash directly from the Commissary Headquarters. 
The depot masters were furnished lump sums as 
advances, these funds being obtained by requisition upon 
the Director General's Imprest Fund. Out of these 
advances the District depot masters not only paid the 
expenses of their own operations, but also furnished 
advances to sub-depot masters to be used in the same 



WHEAT AND ITS DISTRIBUTION 51 

way. The total sum used by each District is shown in 
Appendix III-5. 

Necessarily a high degree of confidence was reposed 
in the district depot masters in regard to their requisitions 
for funds. It was impossible to know the balances which 
they held, other than as advised by themselves. The 
vouchers showing expenditure were necessarily weeks 
in transmission, and further weeks under audit, and, at 
one time, the total balances outstanding rose to the sub- 
stantial figure of $939,839.00. It is a matter of great 
satisfaction that the confidence reposed in the depot 
masters in this respect was in almost all cases fully 
deserved. 

On certain occasions, depot masters were able to 
finance a considerable portion of their handling and 
transport charges by payments in wheat and flour. 
Later, the wheat and flour so used could be restored to 
the allocation for the District, if required. This was 
found expedient for the reason that at the time the pay- 
ments were being made in kind, handling coolies and 
boatmen were as poverty stricken as labourers who were 
employed on dykes. 

For the most part, funds were transmitted to the 
depot masters by telegraphic transfer or by draft. Faci- 
lities of the Central Bank of China and the Bank of 
China were placed at the disposal of the Commission 
without cost in cities where they had branches. But 
occasionally it became necessary to make other arrange- 
ments and these were accomplished by exchange of 
checks with business concerns or mission stations. 



52 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

Similar methods were very largely used by District depot 
masters in remitting funds to their sub-depots, the District 
depot being located as a rule in the financial centre of 
the territory served by the group of sub-depots. 

Accounts As stated above, it became necessary for the Com- 

missary at the outset to assume responsibility for the 
accounts pertaining to the Division. The system followed 
was quite simple. As funds were forwarded to the 
various depots, the Director General's Imprest Account 
was credited, and the receiving depot debited under the 
heading "Depot Advances". When vouchers showing 
expenses were received, they were audited, and the 
correct amounts credited to Depot Advances, at the same 
time that Depot Expenses were debited. 

District depot masters were forbidden to report 
advances of any kind as expenses. Advances were con- 
sidered as funds in hand until a final expense voucher 
was submitted. In this way the responsibility of securing 
an account for all local advances was kept in the local 
District where it could not be overlooked. 

The accounting rules and those governing the sub- 
mission of vouchers imposed upon the depots at the 
beginning, were those which had been tried and found 
satisfactory by the Chief of the Division in former 
emergency famine relief operations. Later, when the 
Audit Department issued its rules based upon the Govern- 
ment requirements, it was found that the latter were con- 
siderably more detailed and meticulous than the former. 
The Government regulations being planned to meet the 
needs of a permanent organization, naturally they are 



WHEAT AND ITS DISTRIBUTION 53 

much more rigid than those usual in emergency opera- 
tions. 

The total sum handled by the Commissary Division Accounting 
aggregated $1,929,867.41. 1 for Grain 

The difficulty of securing a satisfactory unit by which 
to account for grain is considerable. A simple unit 
would be the individual package, but there is large 
variation in the weight of the individual bag. Further- 
more, considerable quantities can be abstracted from any 
bag without attracting much attention. 

Theoretically, all of the cargo should have been 
weighed and the accounts kept according to weight, but 
in the emergency it was impossible to weigh all the 
cargo. For example, at such depots as Tatung and An- 
king, unloading had to be done rapidly in order not to 
delay the steamer in its up-river schedule. In the limited 
storage space, there was no room to do other than pile 
up the bags as fast as men could move. At Nanking 
and Hankow, where entire shiploads were handled at the 
rate of a thousand or more tons a day, it was quite im- 
practicable to delay the work by weighing every bag. 

But even when weighing could be done, the results Unit of 
were not entirely satisfactory. There are no standard eiff 
weights in commercial use throughout China. A catty at 
Shanghai has a weight very different from a catty in 
Wuhu. At Wuhu at least two different catty weights are 
in current use. The unit finally selected was the 
American short ton of 2,000 pounds avoirdupois, the unit 
by which the wheat was purchased. Confusion arose in 

1 Vide Appendix III-5 



54 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

connection with the use of this ton for the reason that all 
the shipping out of Shanghai and similar ports, affected 
by foreign influence is in terms of the English long ton. 

Scale * The lack of standard units of weight is matched by 

the lack of standard scales. At the beginning of opera- 
tions an effort was made to find a suitable Chinese steel- 
yard scale to serve as standard, but those in stock at 
that time in Shanghai were utterly unsuitable and there 
was no time in which to have a suitable set constructed 
before the cargoes began to arrive at river ports. 
Furthermore, a scale of this sort, varying from local 
scales, would be sure to arouse considerable opposition 
if it weighed heavier than the local scales, or if an ad- 
justment were attempted when it weighed lighter. 
Furthermore, the same scale, no matter what the design, 
can be manipulated to show a difference of as much as 
two or three per cent in different weighments of the same 
article. Accordingly, the decision was reached to direct 
each depot master to purchase the necessary scales 
locally, but to see to it that these were standard through- 
out the sub-depots served by his district. 

Looking back, it seems now as if it might have been 
wise to have purchased foreign platform scales 
sufficient to have served the entire area, but two hundred 
such scales required an initial outlay of such size as to 
discourage the purchase. Also, commercial firms re- 
cognize that with every handling of either wheat or flour, 
there is a certain loss due to percolation of the grain or 
flour through the meshes of the bag, even if neither rips 
nor breakage add to that loss, and that this loss usually 
amounts to one per cent. 



WHEAT AND ITS DISTRIBUTION 55 

The method finally adopted was to assume the weight 
of wheat deliveries at each river port to equal the number 
of bags multiplied by 160 pounds in the case of wheat. 
This weight was assumed because the out-turn reports 
of perhaps a dozen of the first ships arriving showed the 
average weight per bag to be approximately 160 pounds. 
However, individual bags in these same shipments varied 
from 140 pounds to 170 pounds, and individual ships 
tallied out at an average varying from 157 pounds to 163 
pounds per bag. Thus the 160 pounds was not 
completely satisfactory, but in view of the im- 
possibility of actually weighing the cargo delivered to the 
up-river steamer, this average appeared to be the most 
practical method of arriving at the number of tons of 
wheat, with which the depot should be debited. 

But the scales at certain depots were found to weigh 
heavy; that is, a sack of wheat weighing 160 pounds at 
Shanghai might weigh 165 pounds at the river depot. 
Since this wheat would be weighed out to the labourers 
with these scales, to debit the depot with only 160 pounds 
when the wheat was received, and to credit it with 165 
pounds when the wheat was distributed, would obvious- 
ly leave a balance of five pounds in the hands of the 
depot after the books showed a complete distribution. 
Certain sub-depot masters were quick to perceive this, 
but slow to realize that they would be held responsible 
for the surplus. A number of irregularities resulted and 
prosecutions have followed in due course. 

The difficulties as to weight were not so serious in 
the case of flour. Bags, when filled at the American 
mills, were standardized by automatic weighing machines 



56 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

at 49 pounds. So long as the bags remained unbroken, 
the bag was a convenient and fairly reliable unit for the 
measurement of flour. But ultimately, a serious percent- 
age of bags of flour broke, and in the course of a large 
number of handlings there was some wastage due to 
percolation through the mesh, as in the case of wheat. 

Grain As depot masters forwarded supplies from the Dis- 

Accountmg . 

Procedure tnct base to sub-depots, they were required to issue a 

Shipping Notice which was receipted in duplicate by 
the receiving sub-depot. One of these receipts was re- 
tained as a record, and the other sent to the Commissary 
Headquarters for its information. Every ten days, a 
summary of such Shipping Notices was required, so as to 
make sure that no Shipping Notice had been lost in the 
mails. At the conclusion of operations the District depot 
was required to submit a final statement supported by 
the receipted Shipping Notices which it had retained. 

Similarly, the District depot held the sub-depots re- 
sponsible for accounting. Sub-depot masters were re- 
quired to support their records of distribution by 
receipted requisitions from gang-leaders, and when 
making a final account, the list (Delivery Audit Sheet) 
of these receipted requisitions was signed by the local 
head of the receiving Division in token of the genuine- 
ness of the signatures thereon, and to serve as a virtual 
audit of the amounts distributed. 

In this way the system of accounts provided for the 
regular transfer of responsibility for the grain to the 
receiving Divisions. When the District depot receipted 
the steamer's Bill of Lading, it took over responsibility 
from the Inland Transport Committee for the quantity 



WHEAT AND ITS DISTRIBUTION 57 

shown on the Bill of Lading. When the sub-depot 
receipted the Shipping Notice it took over responsibility 
from the District depot for the quantity shown thereon. 
Using Divisions thereafter gave receipts to the sub-depot 
master either in the form of receipted Shipping Notices 
or receipted Requisitions, the latter being used by the 
Engineering and Labour Relief Division. 

Thereafter, the accounting concerned itself with 
the amount of labour performed in exchange for this 
quantity of wheat, or of wheat and flour, and dealt with 
the Engineering and Labour Relief Division. 

But all this work required innumerable computa- 
tions ; for, every transfer of grain was calculated in terms 
of catties and the weight in local catties had to be con- 
verted into English pounds and American tons. At the 
same time, every computation contained a potential 
hazard of error in calculation, in pointing off decimals, 
and in transcription. 

Mention was made above of the fact that every wastage 
handling of wheat results in a certain loss due to percola- 
tion of the grain or flour through the meshes of the bag, 
through rips or breakages in the bag, as well as from 
occasional irregularities on the part of those who have 
the grain in custody. Similarly in the case of flour, the 
pressure upon the lower bags when they are piled high, 
either causes bags to burst or so strains the sewing or 
the mesh that rough handling results in breakage. 
Especially when bags are thrown from the tops of piles 
or into the holds of steamers or lighters, considerable 
breakage occurs. In the course of the hundreds of miles 



58 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

which these commodities must travel, the exposure to 
tampering is considerable, and in China, as in every 
country, there is always a certain proportion of the 
population which is disposed to make use of such op- 
portunties. Added to this, all of the cargo at some time 
was exposed to the weather and to other dangers of 
damage while stored in improvised go downs. 

In view of these dangers, considerable apprehension 
existed throughout the operations that the losses from 
wastage, damage and theft would amount to an unduly 
large proportion of the total wheat and flour received. 
The damage to flour from rain, leaking boats and damp- 
ness in storage was especially feared. In view of the 
exposed position of many of the sub-depots, the liability 
to seizure was a constant anxiety. 

Most of the amounts seized or damaged have been 
definitely located and computed. The accounts have 
been so kept, also, that for the most part, the points 
between which wastage occurred can be located. These 
detailed statistics are available in the archives of the 
Commission. Out of the 445,000 tons received, no more 
than 2 per cent has been lost from all these causes. For 
the other 98 per cent, receipts are on file. 

This unexpectedly favourable result would not have 
been possible had not practically one fourth of the total 
receipts from America been sold direct ex-ship to 
purchasers. Furthermore, it was discovered when ac- 
counts were submitted, that the average loss and 
wastage on flour was only about a half of 
that experienced on wheat, and as half of the total 



WHEAT AND ITS DISTRIBUTION 59 

was received in the form of flour, the wastage was 
materially reduced. On the wheat actually handled, the 
loss from beginning to end was in the neighborhood of 
5 per cent. While fines and insurance have been collect- 
ed against some of the losses which could be directly 
located and accounted for, the greater proportion is 
irrecoverable. However, it should be remembered that 
a very considerable proportion of the wastage was swept 
up and recovered at transfer points, by the most indigent 
portion of the population. 

There were, of course, several detected cases of 
peculation, a few of which have resulted in punitive 
action and the remainder of which resulted in the flight 
of the guilty persons. The total of such instances, how- 
ever, was not serious. 

At the beginning of operations some weeks were conclusion 
required for the organization to find itself, so to speak, 
and to work out the routine by which its activities could 
be co-ordinated with those of the other Divisions. There 
was a disposition evidenced by some engineers not to 
begin work, or not to expand work which had begun, 
until large stocks of wheat or flour were on the spot for 
payment of labour. Anxiety of these officers to avoid 
obligations which they could not meet was natural. On 
the other hand, the Commissary representatives were 
careful to avoid the delivery of large stocks of grain, 
for which there was no need, or far in advance of need, 
in view of the possibility that a part would have to be 
returned. Even when this was not the case, the supplies 
were more subject to deterioration and more exposed to 
pilferage or raiding at sub-depots than they were at 



60 



Accuracy of 
Allocations 



Costs 



NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

District Headquarters. Furthermore, the presence of 
large stocks of grain and flour in certain Districts tended 
to have a bad psychological effect. In some cases, the 
price of foodstuffs fell so rapidly in view of certainty of 
supply, that the decreased money value of the daily 
wage was apt to discourage labourers from coming on 
the job. In other cases, it gave the labourers the feeling 
that the Commission was at their mercy, and so would 
be compelled to accede to extravagant demands. This, 
of course, occurred only in those Districts in which there 
was an ample commercial market for labour, and the 
lack of foodstuffs was not acute. But, in a surprisingly 
short time, all Divisions dealing with the wheat were co- 
operating effectively. 

The allocations as revised proved to be quite 
accurate. At the conclusion of operations, not more 
than 1,500 tons of flour remained unused at Hankow, 
also about 350 tons at Anking, and a like amount of 
wheat in the Nantungchow District. About 300 tons of 
flour which had been consigned to Hwayang but un- 
loaded at Wuhu were returned to Shanghai, and 350 tons 
of wheat and 430 tons of flour which remained in the 
Hwai River Valley were kept for the completion of 
operations in progress. In not more than half a dozen 
cases had wheat or flour in excess of 50 tons to be moved 
back from a sub-depot to which it had been advanced. 

The total cost of handling the wheat and flour from 
America to the consumer in the flooded districts was 
approximately $10,000,000 or about $22.50 per ton. Of 
this nearly 60 per cent was consumed by ocean freight 
and related expenses, 6 per cent by bags and bagging 



WHEAT AND ITS DISTRIBUTION 61 



expense, 15 per cent by up-river transport and 19 per 
cent by the depots, sub-depots and local transport. The 
expenses in China, aggregating over $4,000,000 and 40 
per cent of the total, would have been substantially larger 
had not practically a quarter of the total receipts from 
America been sold on, or soon after, arrival. 

When it was decided to close down operations in Liquidation 
the field, the Liquidation Committee gave instructions 
that the small remaining stocks and miscellaneous 
equipment should be disposed of to the best advantage. 
In some cases, a representative of the Liquidation Com- 
mittee was sent to the District depot to oversee such sales. 
In other cases, the depot master negotiated the sale 
under instructions from the Chief of the Division. Flour 
returned to Shanghai was sold locally, for the most part 
as the result of bids in writing. As rapidly as possible, 
the staff was withdrawn from the field and both grain 
and cash accounts were prepared for audit. 

The final test of success is to be found in the fact 
that there were no instances in which work had to be 
abandoned, after it had been begun, owing to failure to 
deliver supplies in time to keep the work going, and that 
deliveries were made early enough to enable the work 
on the dykes to be completed before the spring flood 
waters rose sufficiently to top them. A still further 
evidence of success is the fact that in a large part of 
the area served, people were so well supplied with food, 
that they could afford to argue with the delivering officers 
as to whether wheat or flour was to be accepted and to 
demand special consideration because wheat or flour 
was being offered instead of their customary rice. No 
instances were reported along any of the principal water- 



62 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

ways, except in inaccessible districts, of the population 
being reduced to using chaff, bark or any other of the 
food substitutes which are usual in the case of actual 
famine conditions. 




5* a of at a 

t < ,:... -.- ,.., 




6. Junk loads of flour to be despatched to sub-depots. 




7. at and 




8. The single-family type of shelter. 



CHAPTER IV 

Emergency Relief and Inspectorate 

The regulations drafted by the Commission for its 
internal organization and approved by the Government, 
provided for a Department of Field Operations. (See 
Chapter II). General Chu Ching Lan, one of the five 
members of the Commission designated by the Govern- 
ment, was immediately appointed Director. At the 
beginning, plans for this Department envisaged its 
activities as falling under two categories ; one, relief of 
an emergency nature to be given as needed to save life, 
and the other, relief during the winter and spring through 
employment upon the rebuilding of the destroyed dykes. 
At a later date, assistance to farmers to re-establish the 
productivity of the land was added to the program. It 
was therefore in the following order that three Divisions 
of the Department of Field Operations were conceived: 
Emergency Relief, Engineering and Labour Relief, and 
Farm Rehabilitation. Subsequently, during the period 
of internal reorganization, as referred to later in Chapter 
II, it became apparent that for practical purposes, in- 
spection and the handling of the wheat should be in 
charge of special Divisions rather than the duty of the 
original Divisions, each for itself. As a result, the Com- 
missary Division and the Inspection Division were added. 

The handling of the wheat has already been de- 
scribed. In later chapters will be found accounts of the 
work of Farm Rehabilitation and of Engineering and 
Labour Relief. This chapter will deal with the Inspec- 
torate and with Emergency Relief. 



64 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

I 

inspection For inspection purposes the whole area of operations 

was divided into eleven Districts, each with a Superin- 
tendent and an Assistant Superintendent. Besides these 
22 officials there were 84 Inspectors. 

The duties of inspection were twofold. The In- 
spectors were charged with the investigation of com- 
plaints. They were also charged with the discovery of 
mismanagement, malpractice, irregularity or inefficiency 
in all branches of the work. They were not authorized to 
lay charges in the Courts, or to prosecute offenders. The 
duty of the Inspector was to enquire, and to report to the 
Division concerned. The Division then took such action 
as seemed desirable. Copies of all reports were sent to 
the Director General and to the Director of Field 
Operations who, if necessary, took steps to ensure that ap- 
propriate action was actually taken. 

During the period when inspection was in force, 
over 4,500 communications were received from the field, 
of which 2,500 were formal inspection reports. In 
addition, numerous matters were dealt with by telegram. 

The cost of the Division was very moderate, the 
maintenance and travelling expenses of an Inspector 
being, on an average, less than $60 a month. They were 
all volunteers and were allowed only maintenance and 
actual travelling expenses while on duty. The total cost 
of the Division amounted to $70,000. 

The work was valued at Headquarters. It had two 
aspects preventive and remedial the former at least 



EMERGENCY RELIEF AND INSPECTORATE 65 

as important as the latter, and it is difficult to exaggerate 
the effect of an independent inspectorate in discouraging 
irregularities of every kind. 

II 
Before the Commission was in a position to do ariy Relief 

^ Work 

effective work, innumerable local relief efforts had been 
organized. These were both public and private. The 
Provincial Governments had undertaken relief work on 
a considerable scale. Of the private efforts, those of 
the guilds and of the Red Swastika Society were earliest 
in the field. 

It has been noted that the National Government 
made a grant to the National Famine Relief Com- 
mission, which was apportioned in the manner described 
on page 13 and administered by that organization. 
There were thus agencies already in the field whose work 
could be, and eventually in many cases was, either co- 
ordinated or amalgamated with that of the Emergency 
Relief Division of the Commission. 

Many of these organizations, however, continued 
their separate activities, but everywhere in the closest 
co-operation with those of this Commission, which pro- 
vided large numbers of efficient charitable institutions 
with subsidies to help them in their work. This was an 
accepted policy and throughout the whole period of 
relief operations this Commission was enabled to use 
for purposes of relief, not only its own staff, but also the 
agents of the numerous charitable associations at work 
in the various provinces. 



66 



NATIONAL FLOOD BELIEF COMMISSION 



Organization 
by Districts 



Hunan 
Organization 



Hupeh 
Organization 



The Commission organized the following Emergency 
Relief Districts under its direct control : 



Ning-shu 

Kiangpei 

Changsha 

Wu-Han 

Kiukiang 



Wuhu 

North Anhwei 

Tsinan 

Changan (Shensi) 

Chengchow (Honan) 



The Commission placed a superintendent in charge 
of the relief work in each District, leaving to him the 
responsibility for local organization. The latter general- 
ly took the form of local relief committees under the 
direction of hsicn superintendents, (Cha fang Chang) 
with whom hsicn magistrates co-operated as associate 
superintendents (Hui Pan}. The local committees were 
formed of representatives of the local gentry. 

There were, however, notable exceptions to this 
common rule. In Hunan, the Commission established 
a District Office which operated up to March 1932. There- 
after, the Provincial Government undertook the whole 
of the relief of the Province, Emergency Relief, Farm 
Rehabilitation and Labour Relief, through the Hunan 
Flood Rehabilitation Committee with funds provided by 
the National Flood Relief Commission. Its relief work 
was subject to inspection by the Commission's inspectors, 
and its accounts to audit by the Commission's auditors. 
In other respects, the whole responsibility rested upon 
the shoulders of the Hunan Flood Rehabilitation Com- 
mittee. 

In Hupeh a Flood Emergency Relief Committee was 
organized at an early date. It was already in existence 
when this Commission sent a representative who assisted 



EMERGENCY RELIEF AND INSPECTORATE 67 

in the organization of a Hupeh branch of the Commis- 
sion. These two organizations involved some duplication 
of effort, and on November 7, 1931, they were amalgama- 
ted into the Hupeh Flood Rehabilitation Committtee, 
which became responsible for the control of the whole 
of relief operations in that Province. The District 
Superintendent appointed by the Commission continued 
to function till the summer of 1932, but work in the field 
was in the hands of the Hupeh Flood Rehabilitation 
Committee. 

The programme of the Emergency Relief Division Relief Periods 
was divided into three periods. During the first period, 
which ended on September 15th 1931, the work consisted 
in helping refugees to places of safety, in the burial of 
the dead, and in the provision of temporary shelter and 
relief. The second period which extended to February 
15th 1932 was the period of refugee camps, gruel 
kitchens, distribution of winter clothing, and village 
emergency relief. Small labour works were instituted 
for rehabilitation of the flooded areas. 

After February 15th the program contemplated the 
cessation of free relief, and the repatriation of inmates 
of camps. The only type of relief which it was intended 
to continue was small labour relief. 

Allocations were made to the various Districts by Allocation of 
the Headquarters organization after local investigation, 
according to an estimate of their respective requirements. 
On the whole, these allocations were reasonably correct, 
though in two cases, namely North Anhwei and Honan, 



68 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

they proved to be inadequate. Famine became severe 
in these two areas in the early spring of 1932, and not 
only were additional resources granted by the Commis- 
sion, but considerable charitable funds raised in Great 
Britain and the United States, specially for the purpose, 
to be used at the discretion of the Director General were 
devoted to relief in these Provinces. In addition certain 
contributions were sent from the "Save the Children 
Fund" in Geneva and in London, which were used entire- 
ly for the relief of children in Hupeh, Honan, and North 
Anhwei. The timely receipt of these additional funds, 
at a period when the resources of the Commission were 
completely employed, was particularly useful in meeting 
special demand from areas where famine had become 
acute. For a complete list of allocations made by the 
Commission, vide Appendix III - 3. 

The Commission in addition, made emergency relief 
grants to the Provinces of Szechuen, Yunnan, Kweichow, 
Fukien and Kwangtung and subsidized also the following 
organizations: Nanking Flood Relief Association, Central 
and South Anhwei Joint Relief Committee, Shanghai 
Refugee Camp, All-China Emergency Relief Association, 
Kiangning Flood Relief Association, Wu-hsiang Emer- 
gency Relief, Chekiang. 
Allocation Within the District, as a rule, hsicns were classified 

within 

Districts according to the intensity of flood damage, and alloca- 

tions were made on a similar consideration of respective 
need. Usually they were divided into three classes. A 
good example of the method is Kiangsi Province to which 
the total allocation was $160,000* and 9,200 tons of 
American wheat. This was allocated to twelve stricken 

*Later, considerably augmented. 



EMERGENCY RELIEF AND INSPECTORATE 69 

hsiens. They were divided into three classes and the 
allocation distributed as follows: 

Class I. Four hsiens each $20,000 and 1,000 tons wheat. 
Class II. Four hsiens each $12,000 and 800 tons wheat. 
Class III. Four hsiens each $ 8,000 and 500 tons wheat. 

The enquiry conducted by the University of Nanking Refugee 
resulted in an estimate that forty per cent of the popula- 
tion of the flooded area were compelled to evacuate 
their homes and find refuge elsewhere. At the com- 
mencement of operations, therefore, the Commission was 
at once faced by an appalling problem of refugees. They 
were to be found by thousands in every town and in 
every large village, and by hundreds moving along every 
road in the country. 

Ill 

Camps had already been organized in many places Refugee 
by local authorities and local relief organizations, and Camps 
these were almost invariably taken over by the Com- 
mission. Where they were not so taken over, they were 
assisted with subsidies. 

The great majority of the camps were housed in tern- shelter 
pies, churches, schools and public buildings. Where 
camps were constructed in the open, as a general rule 
the shelters were mat shed huts. In some camps, as for 
instance, in the enormous Black Hill Camp at Hanyang, 
each family constructed its own hut from mats supplied 
by the camp authorities. In others, as at Nanking, mat 
sheds to house ten to fifteen persons were constructed by 



70 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

the authorities. In Wuchang, several thousands were 
covered by a single mat shed roof in each of several 
camps. In some camps, attempts to secure some privacy 
were made, as in North Kiangsu, where it is reported 
that twenty-one camps provided separate quarters to 
men and women, and six for absolute separation of the 
sexes. On the other hand in many camps, including one 
at Nanking and one at Shanghai, and in almost all re- 
fugee camps in temples, accommodation was provided in 
very large wards in which men, women and children 
were housed promiscuously. 

The economy exercised in the creation of these 
camps was marked, and their cost remarkably low. As 
an instance the Tsaitien camp may be quoted. In that 
camp one hundred and twenty thousand refugees were 
actually counted when a census was taken. This was a 
minimum number as it cannot be doubted that many 
escaped enumeration. The total expenditure on mat 
shed shelters for this huge population was in the neigh- 
borhood of twelve thousand dollars, representing a 
charge of about ten cents per head for housing. 

As has been noted, however, not all refugees were 
housed in mat shed shelters. In many cases camps were 
housed in temples or in public buildings. One not- 
able instance of the former method was the Buddhist 
temple at Hungshan (Wuchang) in which a camp was 
managed by the Y.W.C.A. of Wuchang, with the willing 
assistance and hearty co-operation of the Abbot and 
monks. 

Food was provided in different camps in different 
ways. In some, kitchens provided cooked food for every- 



EMERGENCY RELIEF AND INSPECTORATE 71 

one, in others uncooked grain was distributed. In 
a few both methods were employed. In Kiangsi, in one 
of the three camps, cooked food was given to those who 
were clearly entirely destitute, and uncooked food to all 
others. In the Nanking camp a ration of four loaves of 
steamed bread was given to everyone, adult or child. 

In the camps, using the individual family hut for 
shelter, families could be left to find their own fuel and 
use individual taste in the preparation of their food. The 
saving in the cost of fuel was an attractive feature to 
the management; the variety in the food and the occupa- 
tion it permitted were attractive to the refugees. In the 
large shelters, however, individual cooking was not 
practicable and central kitchens were thus necessary. 

Efficiency in camp administration varied greatly as 
between different periods in the same camp. The Black 
Hill Camp at Hanyang is an excellent illustration. Dur- 
ing August and early September, refugees in sampans 
landed at will and pitched their shelters as they pleased. 
There was no order, there were no sanitary arrangements, 
they befouled the water they drank, and an alarming 
death rate was an early result. When the refugees num- 
bered about sixteen thousand, a beginning was made 
toward organization. A month or so later, this camp 
sheltered over one hundred thousand people, and was a 
model of organization. Sanitation was as perfect as was 
possible in a camp. Piped water was provided and 
measures taken to prevent pollution. Ample hospital 
accommodation and medical assistance were provided. 
Schools were established for the children. There was 



72 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

even a large mat shed Mission Church, which also served 
the purpose of an Assembly Hall. 

The Shanghai refugee camp was also a good 
example. It benefited from the attention of charitable 
people and from the frequent visits of medical men and 
women of Shanghai, who reinforced the permanent 
medical service of the camp. It had schools for the 
children and organized games. Unfortunately it was 
the object of peculiarly malignant attention on the part 
of Japanese airmen during the hostilities of February- 
March, 1932. It was bombed and machine-gunned on 
several occasions, many of the innocent and unfortunate 
inmates being killed and wounded. 

Numbers The District reports do not give complete particu- 

in camp Jars of the numbers of camps or of their inmates. That 

the camps were very numerous is undoubted. In North 
Kiangsu alone there were twenty-seven, in Hupeh 
twenty-two. The numbers they contained probably ran 
into seven figures. In Hupeh in all camps there were over 
two hundred and fifty thousand refugees. Complete 
statistics of cost are not available for all camps. The 
amount varied, however, considerably from camp to 
camp and from Province to Province. Statistics from 
North Kiangsu establish a cost of $6.50 per head for a 
period of four and a half months. The per capita figure 
for Kiukiang was $6.10 for five months, for Wuhu it was 
$3.10 for four months. These represent $1.44, $1.22 and 
$0.77 per head per month respectively. It is evident that 
treatment in North Kiangsu was more liberal than it was 
in the Wuhu area. 



EMERGENCY RELIEF AND INSPECTORATE 73 

One of the difficulties in the case of refugee camps 
lay in the accepted opinion of all inmates that no dis- 
crimination should be made in treatment. In the Black 
Hill camp, it was found impracticable to provide nourish- 
ment for those actually starving, unless the whole of the 
occupants were fed. The argument used was that the 
Commission was a National institution and that, in con- 
sequence, every citizen was equally entitled with every 
other citizen to receive an equal amount of relief from 
the Commission. In any case, the difficulty of discrimi- 
nating between the destitute and the near-destitute was 
insuperable, and it was therefore necessary to make allo- 
cations of wheat or flour to all residents of the camp, in 
order to save the lives of a small portion. 

The dispersal of these camp populations involved Dispersal 
great difficulties. This took place in general when village 
relief had been organized, when the waters had receded, 
and when it was possible for the people to return to their 
villages and to be maintained there. It was clearly most 
desirable that they should return at a date as early as 
possible, to cultivate and sow their fields for the next 
crop. It was, however, difficult to convince the refugees 
that on arrival at their destinations they would find 
arrangements made for further relief. Constant 
pressure was maintained and gradually the camps were 
emptied and closed wherever possible. 

The problem of dispersal was aggravated in the case 
of Wuhan camps, at that time, by the existence of a so- 
called Soviet Government in a considerable part of Hu- 
peh. The refugees in the Commission camps were in 



74 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

fact only in part refugees from flooded areas. A large 
portion of them were refugees from the Red menace. 
Their villages were occupied by Red armies, their fields 
had been transferred to Red adherents and their lives 
depended upon absence from their homes. When the 
time came to close the refugee camps these people were 
desperate. In fact it proved impossible to disperse them, 
even when travelling expenses were provided. 

The Wuhan military authorities had strong objec- 
tions to the concentration of an enormous body of 
refugees in the immediate neighborhood of Hankow, 
Hanyang and Wuchang, and finally in the month of 
April 1932 the camps in that vicinity were closed and 
their inmates removed to camps which had been pre- 
pared and for which supplies had been collected at 
Tsaitien, Chingshan and Shihtsui. These camps con- 
tinued in existence until the military operations in Hu- 
peh were successful and the retreat of the Red forces 
allowed the refugees to return to their homes. 

Among many charitable gifts to refugees in the 
camps one particularly useful donation took the form 
of 1,111 pairs of shoes contributed by a private organiza- 
tion in Honan when the camps were in process of dis- 
persal and the refugees were about to start for home. 

Mortality No record of mortality was kept except in a few 

camps, but there is no doubt that the death rate was 
very high. In the camps in Kiangsi province, for 
example, which contained a maximum number of 20,249 
refugees, 2,476 had died before the end of December 
1931 when the camps had been in existence less than 



EMERGENCY RELIEF AND INSPECTORATE 75 

three months. This is a rate of 48.9% per afmum. It 
is natural that the death rate should be high as the re- 
fugees were physically in a low state before they arrived 
at the camps, it was the season when the morbidity rate 
is normally high, and concentrations of large numbers 
favoured the spread of infection. In addition, the pro- 
vision they received was necessarily coarse and, though 
sufficient for the maintenance of life, was not adapted 
to the needs of invalids. 

In the very nature of the case any orphanage, asylum orphanages 
or old-age refuge work undertaken by the Commission 
could only be temporary, and one of the most pressing 
problems in connection with dispersal was that of the 
disposal of those who had no homes to which they could 
return, nor any visible means of support. Orphans, who 
were an aftermath of the flood, aged and infirm, with no 
dependents to whom they could look for support, saddest 
of all, deaf, dumb and blind children for whom the very 
dictates of common humanity demanded that provision 
should be made constituted a problem of magnitude. 
Eventually provision was made for all. Buddhist 
orphanages and refuges, Mission schools and institu- 
tions, together with many private undertakings, shared 
the burden of this responsibility. Some of these institu- 
tions received a subsidy in cash or kind from the Com- 
mission, whilst others received nothing. The manner 
in which private and organized charity rose to this oc- 
casion should be a matter of pride to the entire nation. 

IV 

The gruel kitchen is a regular feature of emergency Kitchens 
relief and many were operated during the period of flood 



76 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

relief. It is impossible to report the actual number of 
these institutions but it was very large. The Wuhu Dis- 
trict ran two kitchens. There are no statistics as to the 
number relieved, but as the Regulations limited the 
number to 5,000 for each kitchen, the number was clearly 
very large. In North Anhwei in one hsicn alone, that of 
Fuyang, there were one hundred and ten kitchens, of 
small size, the maximum number fed being seven thou- 
sand one hundred on one day. The hsicn was divided 
into eleven "kitchen districts", each operating 10 small 
kitchens, which provided meals for 20 to 30 only in each 
case. It would be more correct to count each district 
as one kitchen. In one hsicn, Meng Cheng in North An- 
hwei, the gruel kitchen provided a combination of village 
relief and kitchen relief. The village relief was effected 
by the distribution of gruel from a kitchen moving 
systematically from place to place. 

One kitchen operated by the Ningshu District Office 
was the result of co-operative effort. The District office 
supplied 38 tons of wheat, while the local authorities 
were responsible for all funds required for operating ex- 
penses of the kitchen. In North Kiangsu private gruel 
kitchens were found in most of the distressed regions and 
of them twenty-four were taken over by the Emergency 
Relief Division. In Hunan kitchens were operated by 
hsicn authorities and local philanthropists, and those 
which functioned satisfactorily were granted subsidies 
by the Changsha District Office and subsequently by the 
Hunan Flood Rehabilitation Committee. In Honan 
sixteen kitchens were organized in December 1931 and 
January 1932 to which all destitute were given tickets 



EMERGENCY RELIEF AND INSPECTORATE 77 

of admission. In them a total of four and a quarter 
million meals were given to a daily average of thirty-four 
thousand seven hundred and fifty people. 

The rations at these kitchens varied in amount and 
in kind from place to place. Usually it was from six to 
eight ounces of rice or millet but in Kiangsu in some 
kitchens it is reported that refugees were allowed to help 
themselves to as much as would satisfy them at each 
meal. 

According to reports received, the number of people 
fed daily was between 204,000 and 220,000 in those 
Provinces where kitchens were operated. The per capita 
cost of kitchen relief is difficult to establish. A calcula- 
tion, made as carefully as the circumstances permit, 
gives an average daily cost of approximately three cents 
for each person fed. 

V 

Preparations for the distribution of Village Relief village 
by the Emergency Division of the Commission took con- organization 
siderable time, during which the destitute were chiefly 
dependent on local charity and private organizations. 
Very early, however, these organizations received 
assistance from the fund to which reference was made 
on Page 13 and which was administered by the National 
Famine Relief Commission. 

As a general rule the organization for Village Relief 
was based on the hsien, a local relief office with its 
hsien superintendent being located at hsien headquarters. 
In some Provinces hsien committees were organized, in 



78 



Lists of 
Recipients 



Distribution 



NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

others the hsicn government and various educational and 
charitable institutions were called upon for assistance. 

Lists of names of the destitute were obtained through 
these local authorities and organizations. These lists 
were checked on the spot by representatives of the Com- 
mission's Superintendent of Relief, and amended by the 
removal or addition of names as might seem necessary. 
When the lists were finally prepared, they were publish- 
ed and affixed in the village so that everyone might be 
aware of those who were entitled to free relief and of 
the amount of relief to which each was entitled. 

The date of distribution was also published in every 
village and town where relief was distributed. Tickets 
were given to each of the sufferers adjudged worthy of 
relief, these tickets containing particulars of the amount 
to which the particular recipient was entitled. When the 
time came for distribution, this was done in the presence 
of two or three of the chief men of the village, so that 
there could be no question as to the identity of the per- 
sons appearing or of their being given a smaller amount 
than that to which they were entitled. 

Personal attendance at time of distribution was de- 
manded from all holders of relief tickets, with the 
exception of prospective mothers, of women immediate- 
ly after childbirth, of infants, of cripples or of persons 
of extreme old age. 

The number of centres of distribution was very 
large. It has been calculated that relief was distributed 
in at least two thousand places. As a rule there were only 



EMERGENCY RELIEF AND INSPECTORATE 79 

two distributions, one in the Winter, a second in the 
Spring. In some of the most distressed areas, however, 
distributions were made more frequently as, for instance, 
in the northwest portion of Anhwei where they took 
place in certain areas, as at Pochow, every week or ten 
days. 

Local unpaid assistance was enlisted for the work 
of Village Relief. The paid staff was small. The or- 
ganization of Honan might be cited as typical. There, 
each hsicn had a Superintendent with four field workers 
and four assistants, the latter chosen from the local 
gentry. The members of the staff (with the exception 
of the hsicn Superintendent) were paid $2 each per day 
for thirty days. If the work was not then completed, 
sixty cents per day was allowed as subsistence for the 
additional time necessary to finish it. 

Much variation is noticeable in the amounts dis- Amount of 
tributed as relief, both in cash and in kind. For instance, 
in the case of Central and South Anhwei the Joint Relief 
Committee distributed cash in twenty-six hsicns. The 
average amount per capita was twenty-seven cents only. 
Adults received double the amount granted to children. 
It is probable, however, that in addition to this cash 
relief, the majority of the sufferers received relief in 
kind, varying in amount from one to twenty catties of 
flour or one to thirty-five catties of wheat for each adult, 
from the Wuhu Office. In Hunan the ordinary amounts 
were $1 for an adult, fifty cents for a child, while in 
Shantung cash relief was given at a rate of not less than 
$1 per person, and in cases where there had been a 



80 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

death in the family, or property had been destroyed in the 
flood, (and such cases must in the nature of things have 
been the great majority) additional relief was granted 
up to a maximum of ten dollars. In Honan there was a 
uniform rate of two dollars for adults and half that 
amount for children. 

Similar variations occurred in the case of relief in 
kind. For example, the Nanking Flood Relief Associa- 
tion, which was the agent for the Commission in that 
city, granted a daily ration of two loaves, equal to about 
half a catty, to adults and to children alike. In North 
Anhwei the total amount varied from eight to seventy 
catties per head. In Honan the rate was twenty catties 
for an adult and ten for a child. 

Because the work of local distribution was principal- 
ly in the hands of local people serving on a volunteer 
basis, the ideas of these local bodies determined the basis 
of distribution. When the local committee was com- 
posed of timid personalities, there was a great tendency 
to divide a hsicn quota equally among all villages, and 
village quotas equally among all households regardless 
of need, and sometimes even regardless of numbers. In 
other cases, more selective measures were followed 
with the result that the local distribution was confined to 
a smaller number of persons, and resulted in a larger per 
capita receipt by those benefited. This lack of uniform- 
ity in the principle upon which distribution was based 
is one of the inevitable drawbacks to the extensive use 
of volunteers in the administration of relief. 

Numbers Operations extended to 224 hsicns and the numbers 

Relieved received relief in this form were enormous. Reports 



EMERGENCY RELIEF AND INSPECTORATE 81 

from the Emergency Relief District show that some 
4,900,000 persons were assisted in this way. 

In addition to relief in cash and in kind, the Com- 
mission spent over $950,000 in making 500,000 suits of 
winter clothing. Besides these suits of new wadded 
garments, the Commission received from contributors 
large amounts of new and second-hand clothing which 
were distributed to the flood sufferers. 

As a rule Village Relief ceased after the Spring dis- find of village 

Relief 

tribution in cash. From Nanking, however, it is reported 
that the relief programme was affected by the existence 
of martial law, which was declared as a result of the 
Japanese invasion of Manchuria. In consequence the 
different branches were obliged to close up in October 
and of the three centres, the first closed on October 16th 
1931, and the last on the 24th of the same month. 

Village Relief is the least satisfactory form of relief. 
It is the most difficult to supervise, and the most liable 
to abuse. In the nature of things the task of discrimina- 
tion between applicants is an invidious duty, and its un- 
pleasantness is liable to lead to inclusion on the lists of 
many names which in fact should not be there. It is 
impossible entirely to abolish this form of relief, but in 
future operations it would be well that it should be 
restricted to a minimum and subjected to rigorous in- 
spection by independent inspectors ; only in this manner 
can serious waste be eliminated. 

VI 

The major portion of the allocation of wheat for small v/ork 
Emergency Relief was applied to subsidizing Small Work 



82 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

Relief. By Small Work Relief is meant relief through 
employment on works of various kinds not under the 
supervision of the Engineering and Labour Relief 
Division. The general instructions of the Field Opera- 
tions Department to the District Superintendents laid 
down that not more than 50 per cent of the Emergency 
Relief allocation should be devoted to Small Work Relief. 
This general rule was not strictly followed. In Kiangsi, 
for instance, 70 per cent of the relief wheat was allocated 
to Small Works. In Central and North Anhwei, the per- 
centage so applied was 79, in Ningshu 87, in Wuhu 50. 
In other districts, smaller percentages were allotted to 
this form of relief. The works as a general rule took the 
form of private and subsidiary dykes, but also included 
house repair, river conservancy, repair of roads and 
bridges. 

Organization As a general rule, the administration of this form 

of relief remained in the hands of the Superintendent of 
Emergency Relief of the Province. He acted through 
hsien committees, composed of representatives of local 
bodies and of local gentry, with the hsien magistrate as 
chairman. In some cases, however, the local authorities 
acted on behalf of the Superintendent. In special in- 
stances, Small Work Relief offices were established to 
take direct responsibility for the administration of this 
form of relief. Thus in Kiukiang District there were two 
special work relief offices ; in Honan, one. In North An- 
hwei, another special case, the work in five hsiens was 
directly under the Joint Committee and the engineers 
whom it employed. 



EMERGENCY RELIEF AND INSPECTORATE 83 

Relief was extended by means of a subsidy to a 
specific piece of work usually not more than a small 
fraction of the total estimated cost of the entire work. 

The common rule was thus to grant a subsidy of a subsidy 
certain portion of the total cost of the work. This subsidy 
was payable in proportion to the amount of work done, 
and only on receipt of evidence of the completion of that 
portion. This rule was, however, not univerally observ- 
ed, and cases are recorded in which the subsidy actually 
amounted to the total cost of the work. On the other 
hand there are recorded cases where the subsidy was 
but 4 or 5 per cent of the total of the work done. 

Not only was there wide variation in the percentage 
granted for individual works, but also, in the various 
Provinces, in the percentage of the total cost of such 
works granted as subsidy. For all Provinces the percen- 
tage was calculated as twenty per cent of the total cost 
of subsidized works. In the case of the area under the 
jurisdiction of the Central and South Anhwei Joint Com- 
mittee, the percentage actually reached sixty-seven. 

The method followed to determine the amount of 
the subsidy demanded the preparation of detailed 
estimates and of a map of the work to be done. These 
were prepared by the farmer himself or by one of the 
local gentry and were then examined and checked by 
the -field staff of the Commission. When all estimates 
had been received, the percentage of subsidy was fixed 
on a consideration of the total cost of all the works, and 
the resources at the disposal of the District Office of 
the Commission in that District. No subsidy, however, 
was granted, unless the farmer was able to complete the 



84 



Number of 
Works 



Amount of 
Work Done 



NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

project with the help of the subsidy, and a bond was 
demanded from three reputable parties to guarantee 
faithful execution of the work. 

The number of works constructed with the assistance 
of these subsidies was very large. They extended to 269 
hsicns. All Provinces have not reported the number, but 
in Kiangsi there were over 700, in Hunan 188, in North 
Anhwei 188, in Central and South Anhwei, 170. The 
Wuhu District granted subsidies to 2,739 dykes on which 
more than 25 million fong 1 of earthwork was done. The 
subsidies amounted to 5 per cent of the total cost. 

Many of the works constructed were of great im- 
portance. Prominent among them may be cited the 
Chang Rung dyke, the road leading from Chiaokou to 
Takousiang, and the concrete dyke along the river front, 
all at, or in the neighbourhood of, Hankow. These are 
works of which it is difficult to exaggerate the import- 
ance. Though they were all constructed with the help 
of Small Work Relief grants, they are in fact major 
engineering operations. This form of relief was not 
only of the greatest assistance to the distressed classes 
in affording work in the vicinity of their homes, but in 
addition to the construction of certain important work 
resulted in the rehabilitation of agricultural holdings by 
the reconstruction of private protective dykes. 

The prodigious amount of work done is evident 
when it is realized that the wheat allocated for this 
purpose was sixty thousand tons. This would mean that 

1 One fong contains 100 cubic feet, Chinese, and is equivalent to 3.7 cubic 
meters or 4.84 cubic yards. 



EMERGENCY RELIEF AND INSPECTORATE 85 

the total amount of work done cost the value of three 
hundred thousand tons, if the subsidy averaged twenty 
per cent of the total. In other words and on this assump- 
tion, the work done as Small Work Relief was equal in 
amount to the work done on the main dykes as Engineer- 
ing and Labour Relief. 

In the nature of things it is not to be expected that Numbers 
any statistics are available of the number of persons " mp ye( 
employed on these Small Works. No such statistics were 
maintained. All that is possible is to assume with con- 
fidence that not less labour was employed on these works 
than on the main dykes. On these latter, at the 
maximum, over one million were employed. On the 
Small Works it is certain that the number employed was 
no less. 

The results of this form of relief were very great. Results 
Of this the chief evidence is to be found in the rich har- 
vest of 1932. Although in 1931 the dykes were destroy- 
ed all over the flooded area, the main rice harvest of 
1932 was so large as to lead to complaint that the price 
of rice was too low. To this result the repair of the private 
dykes contributed, and is evidence that they have been 
repaired generally. 

One criticism of this form of relief can be made, criticism 
There is no evidence, and naturally there can be no evi- 
dence, of payment of wages to the actual workers. The 
subsidy was paid in cash to the dyke owners in those 
cases (and they are the great majority) in which the 
Small Work was dyke repair. It was essential in the in- 
terests of the country generally that, in addition to the 
main dykes, the private and subsidiary dykes should be 



86 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

repaired. Payment of the subsidy to the dyke owners 
in proportion to the work done was justified on that 
consideration, and was the only alternative to the repair 
of those dykes by the Commission in the same way as 
repair of the main dykes. The Commission had neither 
the funds nor the staff for such an undertaking. 

Also, it is quite certain that wages must have been 
paid to the workers. It is incredible that they would 
have remained on these works had wages not been paid, 
in view of the fact that main dyke repairs were in pro- 
gress, and that those dykes admitted any worker who 
cared to come for work. To those they would certainly 
have migrated, had the terms of their employment on 
the small labor works been unsatisfactory. 

Hunan Work In the Province of Hunan, the Hunan Flood Rehabili- 

Loans 

tation Committee, to which the Commission made over 
the allocation for that Province, effected a large amount 
of relief through Work Loans. Their object was recon- 
struction of the dykes along the Tungting Lake front, 
and a guarantee of permanent lake conservancy in the 
future, by the application to this object of the monies 
repaid from time to time. These loans were made to 
landowners with three hundred mow or less for a term 
of two years. Half was repayable two months after the 
autumn harvest of the first year, the remainder being 
repayable twelve months after the first instalment. 

The scale of this type of relief work was very large. 
The total area of the farms affected by it was 3,346,000 
mow. 1 The cost of the works done was over $6,000,000, 

i Equivalent to 550,000 English acres. 



EMERGENCY RELIEF AND INSPECTORATE 87 

of which just over $2,000,000 was granted in loans, being 
34 per cent of the total 

It is reported that in this way 585 dykes were re- 
paired and strengthened, 1,661 breaches were closed 
9,500,000 jong of earthwork done, and 213,177 labourers 
employed. 

This form of relief had a particular value, as it not 
only ensured the repair of privately owned dykes and 
consequently a crop in 1932, but the money advanced 
will form the capital of a fund which will be available in 
future for permanent improvements. 

VII 

Emergency relief was hampered by every sort of Difficulties 
difficulty. Japanese action in Manchuria in the latter 
months of 1931 prevented transport from those Provinces 
of grain, millet and corn, which had been purchased for 
dispatch to famine areas in Honan. Of a total of 4,082 
piculs bought, only 680 arrived in Honan, and there 
was a loss of $40,000 to the Commission from this cause. 

In many parts the presence of bandits and of Com- 
munist forces resulted in the loss of large quantities of 
supplies. Even where actual loss from this cause did not 
occur, the movement of supplies was seriously obstruct- 
ed. The most serious loss experienced by the Commis- 
sion was at Chengyangkwan in the month of May when 
a large sum of money and, more serious by far, the oper- 
ative staff of the headquarters of a large relief District 
were carried off, including Mr. H. S. Ferguson of the 
China Inland Mission, temporarily working for this Com- 



88 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

mission, and Mr. Kao Cheng En. No news of them or 
of six other members of the staff has been received since 
September 1932, and there is grave fear that they have 
paid the extreme penalty by their devotion to their 
duties. 

Occasionally relief funds and supplies were diver- 
ted to other purposes, as for instance in Lu-An and in 

Hochiu hsicns, Anhwei Province, and in certain Asicns 
in Hupeh. But these were exceptions. 

Considering the enormous area over which opera- 
tions extended, and their magnitude, and in view of the 
size of the staff and the rapidity with which it was re- 
cruited, the number of cases of corruption and of pecula- 
tion was remarkably small. In certain cases resort was 
had to successful prosecution, but these were few. A 
striking feature of the emergency relief work was the 
great amount of unstinted and self-sacrificing voluntary 
service on the part of those drawn from all walks of life 
who assisted the Commission in its administration. 

co-operation Reference has been made in this report at various 

Agencies places to the work of other agencies. The distribution 

of emergency relief simultaneously by both official and 
private bodies necessitated close co-operation between 
them, so as to prevent unequal distribution. Co-operation 
was three fold, including that with Provincial and local 
governments, with the local gentry and with private 
relief organizations. Even before co-operation for the 
administration of relief began, there was an arrange- 
ment to exchange appropriation lists so as to avoid 
duplications in the relief extended. In some parts the 



EMERGENCY RELIEF AND INSPECTORATE 89 

field was divided between private agencies and the 
Commission. In others the personnel of the various or- 
ganizations and of the Commission was identical. In 
others again all important questions of policy were 
decided at joint conferences. From practically every 
Province the reports mention that subsidies were given by 
the Commission to local charitable efforts. It is regretted 
that from two Provinces reports have been received that 
this last method was not a great success. There were a 
few cases in which subsidies were used for "Pingtiao", 
a system which permitted flood victims to purchase relief 
grain at reduced prices. Money applied in this way of 
course went much further than the money or supplies 
given outright in the form of doles. 

Emergency relief work on such a large scale requlr- Number of 

^ Personnel 

ed a large staff of field workers. The headquarters in 
Shanghai when the work was at its height, had a staff of 
about 40. The District offices, including 175 local relief 
offices, the refugee camps and the gruel kitchens had a 
staff no less in number than 2,100. This figure does not 
include the Emergency Relief workers employed by the 
Hunan and Hupeh Flood Rehabilitation Committees, 
nor those operating under the auspices of other relief 
organizations with which this Commission co-operated. 

Of this staff a large number were volunteers. They volunteer 

t t Personnel 

received their travelling expenses and nothing more. 
This unpaid staff was drawn from many quarters; 
students from Peiping worked in North Anhwei, students 
from Nanking in Kiangsu. Missionaries, Y.M.C.A. and 
Y.W.C.A. workers, members of the Tangpu, a 
member of the Shanghai Fire Brigade, "all sorts and 



NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 



Limit of 

Administrative 

Expenses 



General 
Conclusion 



conditions of men" and women were to be found 
working side by side in the mitigation of suffering. And 
this was no arm-chair job. They worked in perils of 
many kinds, of which not the least were the perils of 
robbers, the perils of disease, and the perils of the 
malevolent 

It was laid down as a rule that administrative ex- 
penses on Emergency Relief should not exceed two per 
cent of the total of the fund administered. This rule 
was incapable of complete observance, and adminis- 
trative expenses varied very widely. Where the work 
demanded close supervision, the two per cent allowance 
proved entirely inadequate, as for instance, in the case 
of the Ningshu District, where a special additional grant 
proved to be necessary. The two per cent rule had, how- 
ever, one great merit. It drew forcible attention to the 
necessity for economy in administration, and economy 
in fact resulted. In some Provinces the cost of adminis- 
tration exceeded the two per cent limit very materially, 
though, as a rule, care was unquestionably exercised to 
restrict administrative expense as much as possible. 

Delay in the arrival of the first consignment of wheat 
and flour from America was responsible for a time of 
anxiety and suffering, specially in Central and Northern 
Anhwei. But as a rule, local supplies held out until 
stocks of wheat and flour reached the stricken areas. 
Here and there, and not unnaturally, the seriousness of 
the position was misjudged, in some places being under- 
estimated, in others exaggerated. In certain parts of 
Hunan distress developed more seriously than had been 
anticipated. In North Anhwei and in Honan it became 







I, The a 




10. Wheat and flour towed to a distribution center for village relief. 




*iSSiliI -::. 

11. to of 

or for of 




iz. A tremendous fongaffe of private dykes was restored as the result of subsidies 
from the Emergency or Farm Rehabilitation quotas. 



EMERGENCY BELIEF AND INSPECTORATE 91 

acute in the early months of 1932. In all these areas 
special and effective measures were taken, in the last 
two with the additional help of funds from America and 
from England. In general, it is accurate to say that 
emergency relief in its various forms was adequate to 
meet the situation, once the organization was complete 
and in working order. 



CHAPTER V 

Farm Kehabilitation 
I 

Rehabilitation of farms, destroyed or damaged by 
the flood, was considered by the Commission as one of 
the most important phases of its work, to which only the 
repair of the dykes and emergency relief to flood refugees 
took precedence. It was the original plan of the Depart- 
ment of Field Operations to establish in each of the Pro- 
vinces affected by the flood, a Farm Rehabilitation 
Bureau, each Bureau to establish a branch office in every 
hsicn or in selected hsicns in accordance with the severity 
of the distress. Mutual Aid Societies were to be organiz- 
ed for the promotion of rural co-operation, and in time 
these societies were to be transformed into Co-operative 
Societies, to continue the work of rural improvement. 
Emergency relief was to be given in the form of grants. 
Farm rehabilitation, on the other hand, was to be effected 
by loans. These loans were to be repaid, and thus to 
constitute a revolving fund, enabling this branch of the 
work of the Commission to continue, after its other 
activities had ceased. 

Allocation Due to difficulties of organization needed to put such 

of Resources . . . . j . , , ... 

a programme into execution and, in part, also to the 
scarcity of men capable of administering rural relief 
work on such a large scale, the Commission did not itself 
undertake farm rehabilitation but entrusted this work to 
other agencies, notably the China International Famine 
Relief Commission. The scope of the work was further 



FARM REHABILITATION 93 

reduced to the five most seriously flooded Provinces, to 
which wheat for farm rehabilitation was allocated in 
proportion to the extent of flood damage to farms as 
follows : 

1. Hunan 10,000 short tons 

2. Hupeh 10,000 

3. Kiangsu 

a. Loan to Provincial 

Government 10,000 



b. Loan to Department of 
Agriculture and Mining . . . 1,400 

c. Allocation to Yin Hsiang 

Chen, Ningshu District 70 11,470 



M 







4. Anhwei 11,800 

5. Kiangsi 5,000 

Grand Total .... 48,270 short tons 

II 

At the end of 1931 General Chao Shou Yi was ap- Hunan 
pointed by the Field Operations Department as Manager 
of the Farm Rehabilitation Bureau of Hunan. In 
practice, however, no farm rehabilitation was under- 
taken, and all the wheat and cash remitted to Hunan were 
devoted to dyke repairs by the Hunan Provincial Re- 
habilitation Committee, all the Commission's work in 
Hunan having been delegated to that body. Early in 
1932 the Commission pressed the Hunan Provincial 



94 



NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 



Hupeh 



Repair of 

Private 

Dykes 



Committee to commence farm rehabilitation operations, 
and, after consideration, this phase of the work was 
turned over by that Committee to the Hunan Committee 
of the China International Famine Relief Commission. 
This transfer was effected in June 1932. Of the original 
allocation of 10,000 tons for this work, 7,500 tons were 
converted into cash, and the resulting $550,000 handed 
over to the Hunan Committee of the China International 
Famine Relief Commission. The policy of that Com- 
mission in the Provinces of Anhwei and Kiangsi was 
followed in the main by the Hunan Committee in the 
hsicns to 1,932 Mutual Aid Societies, with 166,476 farm 
members. At the beginning of 1933 the balance, 2,500 
tons, was turned over by the Hunan Provincial Re- 
habilitation Committee to the Hunan Committee of the 
China International Famine Relief Commission to com- 
plete the original allocation of 10,000 tons. The value 
of the balance amounted in cash to $191,932.75. 

Ill 

It was the plan of the Field Operations Department 
to establish a Hupeh Farm Rehabilitation Bureau with 
Mr. Ho Heng Fu as General Manager. But when the 
Hupeh Emergency Relief Committee and the Wuhan 
Office of this Commmission were amalgamated into the 
Hupeh Flood Rehabilitation Committee, farm rehabilita- 
tion in that Province was taken over by the latter body. 

Farm rehabilitation in Hupeh was undertaken in 
31 hsicns and municipal areas. These regions were 
separately grouped into eight grades according to 
the degree of distress caused by the flood. These 



FARM REHABILITATION 95 

grades were decided upon by the Hupeh Provincial 
Government, the Bureau of Civil Affairs of Hupeh, the 
Hupeh River Conservancy Board, the Hupeh Flood Re- 
habilitation Committee and the Wuhan Office of the 
National Flood Relief Commission, in consultation, and 
were approved by the Hupeh Flood Rehabilitation 
Committee. A total of 7,000 short tons of relief wheat 
was allocated for repairing private dykes. This was 
actually distributed, 15,086 piculs in kind, and the 
equivalent of the balance in cash, namely $455,482. 
Loans were extended to the owners of the private dykes 
by the hsicn governments in accordance with prevailing 
conditions in the localities under their jurisdiction. These 
loans are to be completely repaid by the listen govern- 
ments between the autumn harvest in September 1932, 
and the wheat harvest in June 1933. 

At first it was intended to distribute 3,000 short tons Seed Loans 
of the relief wheat for seed loans among the thirty-one 
hsiens and municipal areas mentioned above, in pro- 
portion to the extent of the flooded areas within their 
boundaries. Owing to various local difficulties, how- 
ever, loans were made, to 27 hsiens only. These totalled 
30,314 piculs of native wheat, which at the ratio of ten 
native wheat to nine of American wheat, is equivalent to 
1,819 short tons of American wheat. These loans were 
administered by the hsicn and the municipal govern- 
ments, and it was decided that the recipients of the loans 
should repay on arrival of the new harvest on the 
market. The balance, 1,181 tons, of the allocation of 
3,000 tons, was converted into cash. Of the amount so 
received, $50,000 was applied to farmers' loans, as is 



96 



Other Under- 
takings 



Kiangsu 



NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

described in the next paragraph. The rest was paid to 
the Hupeh Committee of the China International Famine 
Relief Commission. 

$100,000 cash, of which $50,000 was the balance 
on hand from the allocation for farm rehabilitation men- 
tioned above, and $50,000 from the Emergency Relief 
Fund, were allocated to the Hupeh Provincial Govern- 
ment, to be used as a fund to be devoted solely to loans 
to the farmers. Plans were also made for the purchase 
of live stock for distribution to needy farmers. 

With the winding up of the activities of the Com- 
mission, it has been decided to turn over to the Hupeh 
Committee of the China International Famine Relief 
Commission the continuation work of farm rehabilitation 
in that Province. A dispatch dated March 6th, 1933, 
from the Standing Comitteee of the Hupeh Flood Re- 
habilitation Committtee, and Mr. Ho Heng Fu, General 
Manager of the Farm Rehabilitation Bureau, reports that 
on February 24th 1933 they completed the transfer of 
residual funds, files, vouchers, and accounts to the Hupeh 
Committee of the China International Famine Relief 
Commission. 

IV 

Of the allocation for Farm Rehabilitation in Kiangsu 
1400 tons were entrusted to the Department of Agricul- 
ture and Mining of that Province for administration. 
This wheat was distributed in loans for the purchase of 
seed in ten listens of that Province. Loans were made by 
nominees of the Department together with the represent- 
atives of local authorities. 



FARM REHABILITATION 91 

This allocation was made in the nature of a loan to 
the Department and was reckoned as the equivalent of 
$110,040. The rate of interest was 3 per cent per annum. 
The amount was repayable in two instalments, December 
31st 1932 and June 30th 1933. No repayment has been 
made at the time of this Report. 

A total of 70*short tons of American wheat was 
allocated to the Ningshu District for farm rehabilitation. 
Loans were made to individual farmers in the vicinity 
of Yin Hsiang Chen of Kiangning (Nanking) Hsien. 
This wheat was entirely used for seed loans, repayable 
in kind. 

The Commission intended to apply in addition 10,000 
tons of wheat for farm rehabilitation in this Province. 
But, as organization for administration of this work was 
not ready, while the repair of dykes in this Province on 
the Grand Canal was considered urgent, the Field Opera- 
tions Department agreed to permit this amount to be 
devoted to dyke repair. It was stipulated that this loan 
would be repaid in two equal instalments, with interest 
at 6 per cent per annum, on July 31st and December 31st 
1932. Owing to financial stringency, however, the Pro- 
vincial Government was unable to meet this obligation, 
and by agreement with the Commission, gave to the 
Commission Provincial Treasury Notes secured on the 
land tax of that Province for $1,280,000. The major 
portion of farm relief work in this Province therefore 
had not yet been undertaken at the time of the closure 
of the Commission's activities. 

*Does not include 225 tons transferred from Emergency Relief. 



98 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

V 

Administra- Administration of the amounts allocated to Kiangsi 

C.I.F.R.C. and Anhwei was undertaken by the China International 

Famine Relief Commission at the request of the National 
Flood Relief Commission. To these two Provinces, the 
ultimate allocation was a total of 16,800 tons of wheat, 
of which 11,800 tons was for Anhwei, and 5,000 tons for 
Kiangsi. Of this about 2,000 tons were distributed in 
kind, the balance being paid out of the Grain Exchange 
account in cash at the rate of $74 per ton. This cash 
was applied to the rehabilitation of the farms of these 
Provinces. To carry out this work, the China Internation- 
al Famine Relief Commission appointed a sub-com- 
mittee in Shanghai where a new office was opened on 
December 16th 1931. 

A field staff of some 120 persons was employed in 
this work. This staff was largely recruited from Hopei 
and Shantung, and consisted of farmers who were them- 
selves members of co-operative societies in those Pro- 
vinces. The average salary paid to the field staff was 
under $30 a month. 

The ultimate goal, to which the efforts of the China 
International Famine Relief Commission were directed, 
was to assist farmers, affected by the flood, to raise their 
next crop within the shortest possible period. It was, 
however, laid down from the start that aid would be 
granted to those farmers only who were organized in 
Mutual Aid Societies. Grants were not made to in- 
dividuals. Regulations governing these Societies were 
drawn up, and put into effect. 



FARM REHABILITATION 99 

As to the object to which grants were directed, the Policy as 
same policy was followed as that adopted by the National 
Flood Relief Commission, namely, that the most import- 
ant use to which resources could be applied was repair 
of dykes, and in this case, private dykes. It was accept- 
ed that unless these dykes were repaired, other efforts 
would be of doubtful value. 

The China International Famine Relief Commission 
was able to start field work early in February 1932, in 
spite of the Japanese attack on Shanghai, which was 
in full vigour at that time. Work was confined to those 
districts where the need was greatest, though difficulties 
were encountered in the selection of areas. It was 
ultimately decided to confine operations to twenty hsicns 
of Anhwei and twelve of Kiangsi. 1 At a later date, 
work was extended to further five hsicns of Anhwei. 2 

Overhead expenses in connection with this work Admmistra- 

r tive Expenses 

amounted to $66,605.69, representing 5.47 per cent of 
the total value of the amount administered in cash and in 
kind. Of the overhead expenses, $2,664 were charged to 
the allocation made by the National Flood Relief Com- 
mission. The balance, $63,941.69, was met out of the 
amount of $150,000 provided by China Famine Relief 
U.S.A. Inc. through their Advisory Committee in Shang- 
hai. In addition to this grant, China International 
Famine Relief Commission received the sum of $30,000 

1 In Anhwei: Hwaining, Tungcheng, Kweichi, Tungliu, Wankiang, Wuhu, 
Hsiencheng, Hohsien, Tuentu, Wuwei, Tungling, Fengyang, Hwaiyuan, 
Wuho, Linpi, Showhsien, Fengtai, Hochiu, Fuyang, Susung. 

In Kiangsi: Nanchang, Hsinchien, Tsinhsien, Yungsien, Poyang, Tehan, 
Hsingtse, Juicheng, Tuchang, Hukow, Pengtzeh, Kiukiang. 

2 In Anhwei: Fanchang, Nanking, Chuantsiao, Suhsien, Szehsien. 



100 



NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 



Distribution 
of Relief 



Repayments 



Object of 
Loans 



from the National Committee of Young Men's Christian 
Associations, earmarked for special work in the re- 
habilitation of farms in villages near Wuhu. 

The work in Anhwei met with several difficulties. 
Traffic on the railway from Pukow to North Anhwei was 
congested, and grain came up slowly. The north of that 
Province was infested by bandits early in 1932, and 
their presence interfered with regular work. Finally 
conversion of wheat into cash was a matter of time. 
These difficulties notwithstanding, the bulk of the pre- 
paratory work in the two Provinces was completed by the 
end of April 1932. By the middle of May $351,000 in cash, 
1,237 tons of wheat and 748 tons of flour had been dis- 
tributed to 1,737 Mutual Aid Societies. By the end of 
1932 the work planned was entirely completed, with the 
exception of that in Hochiu hsien, Anhwei. The bene- 
ficiaries numbered 202,302, organized in 3,668 Mutual 
Aid Societies. 

The work of 1932 was most satisfactory, and en- 
abled a quarter of a million dollars to be repaid by the 
end of November 1932. By the close of the year 
seventy per cent of the total due had been paid. For 
part of the balance, remittances were in transit ; for the 
rest, extensions were being arranged. 

Of the total advanced in Anhwei and Kiangsi, the 
bulk is recoverable by the end of 1933. Individual loans 
were small in amount, averaging $6 only. This is an 
indication of the type of farmer for whom provision was 
made. It indicates also that the principle of dyke repair, 
which was adopted as basic, did not prevail in fact 



THE FLOOD OF 1931 101 

Instead of dyke repair, the common object for which the 
Societies sought loans, was the purchase of seed grain, 
to which 60 per cent of the loans granted were actually 
applied. In addition, 25 per cent was used in the pur- 
chase of animals of husbandry. When the loans employ- 
ed in the purchase of implements and fertilizers are add- 
ed, a very small percentage is left for dyke repair. The 
China International Famine Relief Commission is of the 
opinion that wise use was made by the Societies of the 
funds placed at their disposal, an opinion in which this 
Commission concurs. 

No security was demanded for loans to Mutual-Aid Terms of 
Societies. The joint and several responsibility of its 
members, and the credit of the group, formed the only 
security for the loans. The rate of interest was four per 
cent, which cannot be deemed a commercial rate, and 
which will inevitably be raised when the Mutual Aid 
Societies develop, as they arc intended to develop, into 
co-operatives. The reason for fixation of interest at the 
low rate of four per cent was the consideration that, 
whereas other forms of relief were given outright with 
no obligation of repayment, in this one form, repayment 
was demanded. 

The work of farm rehabilitation has already Continuation 

Programme 

had important results and is likely to have far reaching 
consequences. In the first place, it contributed 
to the production of the record crop of rice in 
1932 in the areas devastated by flood in 1931. 
But, in addition, this opportunity was used to launch 
the co-operative movement in the areas in which work 



102 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

was in progress. Rudimentary lessons in the value of 
co-operative effort were given to the farmers by mem- 
bers of the China International Famine Relief Commis- 
sion field staff during their visits to the villages through- 
out the entire season from April till October. In addition, 
simple co-operative literature was introduced into the 
village farm houses, including a monthly specially issued 
for the purpose from February onward. 

In November a series of three-day training courses 
was conducted in twenty-eight different centres, to which 
representative members of the Mutual Aid Societies were 
invited, and at which the objects and methods of co- 
operation were inculcated, and the routine for the con- 
duct of rural societies was explained. Of these twenty- 
eight centres, work has actually taken place in twenty, 
attendance at the courses varying from fifty to one 
hundred and twenty. At least 2,000 individuals have 
received this elementary instruction, of whom a large 
percentage consists of officers of the Mutual Aid Societies 
founded by the China International Famine Relief Com- 
mission. 

The work of farm rehabilitation carried out by the 

China International Famine Relief Commission provided 
abundant evidence that the farmers of these two pro- 
vinces possess the essential qualities necessary for suc- 
cessful development of the co-operative movement. The 
prompt repayment of loans has established their trust- 
worthiness. Rudimentary training has disclosed remark- 
ably efficient organizing ability. The leaders have taken 
their responsibilities seriously. Judgment has been dis- 
played in the use of the money advanced, and finally, the 



FARM REHABILITATION 103 

whole countryside has become interested in a movement 
which they believe will promote their common welfare. 
The work has awakened among the people a new sense 
of self reliance and of responsibility. It has opened for 
them a way of ultimate escape from the oppression of 
the usurer. It has indeed inspired the peasant popula- 
tion with renewed hope and courage, and has, to a great 
extent, counteracted the tendency to communism which 
was powerful all through the Yangtze Valley. 



CHAPTER VI 

Engineering and Labour Relief 



It has long been recognized by students of social 
science that one of the worst effects of any serious nation- 
al calamity is to be found in the inevitable lowered 
morale of the victims. A considerable portion of those 
affected secure help from other persons more fortunate 
than they by means of personal solicitation and, in time, 
they get into the habit of regarding charity as a means 
of livelihood. The existence of a large body of habitual 
beggars eventually becomes a serious burden on the 
community and, indeed, constitutes a menace to society 
when their number becomes unmanageable. 

The flood of 1931 deprived millions of self-support- 
ing and self-respecting farmers in Central China, at least 
temporarily, of their means of livelihood. One of the 
chief problems of the Commission was to plan and 
execute relief work so that the sufferers might be able to 
earn their own living, thus saving their self-respect, and at 
the same time restoring the productivity of their land. 
The extent and gravity of this disaster has already been 
described and it is scarcely necessary to mention it here. 
From the time of the creation of the Commission, there 
was general agreement that restoration of the dykes by 
refugee labour was to be the most important phase of 
the Commission's programme. These dykes are a pre- 



ENGINEERING AND LABOUR RELIEF 105 

requisite to agricultural prosperity, indeed of agricultural 
existence, in parts of the Yangtze Valley. In fact the 
welfare of Central China, upon which the stability and 
development of the entire country in large measure 
depends, is contingent on the maintenance of protective 
works against the seasonal inundations of the river. The 
Engineering and Labour Relief Division became there- 
fore one of the most important branches of the Com- 
mission. 

In the latter part of September 1931, Mr. T. C. Hsi J e ea g^ er . 
was appointed to take charge of the work of engineering z ami 

,. _ _ , i T^ . Labour Belief 

and labour relief, and proceeded to organize the Divi- Division 
sion. A number of technical men were drafted from 
various government organizations, among them being 
Colonel G. G. Stroebe of the Yangtze River Commission, 
and Mr. Li Hsieh, Chief of the Construction Bureau, 
Shensi Province. Both were men of wide experience in 
river control and conservancy work, and were consulted 
constantly on the technical aspects of the work of the 
Commission. 

The organization of the Engineering and Labour 
Relief Division fell into two broad categories, namely 
Headquarters and Field. 1 

The Headquarters organization consisted of two 
Sections, General and Technical. The names of these 
two Sections sufficiently describe their duties. The former 
carried out the administrative duties of the Division. The 
latter was responsible for the whole of the technical 
work plans, estimates, costs, checking of calculations, 

1 See Organization Chart, Appendix VI-1. 



106 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

maps and collection of technical data. The work of this 
Section followed on decisions taken by the Technical 
Board, the functions of which included consideration 
and approval of matters of policy and of the larger 
engineering projects. 

Technical This Board was a large and important body. It 

was composed of the Chief of the Engineering and 
Labour Relief Division and the Chief Engineer, of 
technical experts appointed by the Commission, 
of representatives of each of the Reconstruction 
Bureaux of Honan, Hupeh, Kiangsi, Kiangsu, 
Anhwei, Chekiang, Shantung and Hopei and of 
each of the following Boards: National Reconstruc- 
tion Board, Hwai River Commission, Yangtze River 
Commission, Tai Hu Waterways Commission, Chili 
Conservancy Board and Whangpoo Conservancy Board. 
An Executive Committee of five members acted for the 
Technical Board when not in session. The decisions of 
this Board were as a rule accepted by the Provincial Au- 
thorities without demur, as it not only contained repre- 
sentatives of all the Provinces concerned, but was re- 
cognized as a technical authority of the highest compet- 
ence. 

II 

In Chapter I of this Report a short account of the 
aerial survey of the flooded areas has already been given. 
The method followed in this survey was to use as a basis 
an existing Chinese military map covering the district 
under consideration. The speed of the aeroplane in miles 
per hour being known and the direction of flight of the 



ENGINEERING AND LABOUR RELIEF 107 

plane also being known from the compass, the traverse 
accomplished by the plane could be drawn on the map 
to the map's scale, beginning at a prominent landmark 
(city, pagoda, river confluence, etc.,) shown on the 
military map, and continuing towards a second definite 
landmark. By observing the edge of the flood waters 
the flooded area was mapped with rapidity and with 
sufficient accuracy. As much as eight thousand square 
miles was covered in one day. Only nine days were 
spent by the Commission's surveyors for the survey of 
the Yangtze River area and that of the Tungting and 
Poyang Lakes, a work which by old methods would have 
required several months and much greater expense. 
From these reconnaissance surveys a flood map was 
prepared. (Vide Map 1). The areas mapped are de- 
tailed in Appendix 1-3. 

When the aerial survey was made, the flood was i>yke Survey 
still at its height. By the end of October, the water had 
receded somewhat, and plans were made to survey the 
extent of the damage. As the dykes were scattered over 
all the Provinces concerned, and as time was short, 
speed was essential. It was felt that the best procedure 
would be to co-operate with the different Provincial 
Bureaux and River Commissions by dividing among them 
the districts to be surveyed in the following way: 

a. Along the Yangtze River from Chinkiang to 
Wusueh, the work was entrusted to the Yangtze 
River Commission. Three surveying parties were sent 
out by this organization. From Wusueh to Shasi on 
the Yangtze River and along the Han and Kin Rivers 



10& NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

the work was undertaken by the Hupeh Conservancy 
Bureau. 

b. On the Siang and Yuen Rivers and around the 
Tungting Lake, the Hunan Reconstruction Bureau co- 
operated, but on account of lack of funds in the Provin- 
cial Treasury, the work was suspended after a brief 
period. 

c. On the Hwai River, the work was undertaken by 
the Hwai River Commission with three surveying parties. 

d. On the Kan River in Kiangsi the work was 
undertaken by the Kiangsi Conservancy Bureau. 

Surveys were made wherever possible, but in certain 
places where the ground was still under water, and in 
others which were infested by bandits, surveying was 
not feasible. 

Where surveys were made, they followed the Com- 
mission's rules and standards, and the surveyors made 
out cross sections of the damaged dykes. From these 
the amount of earthwork required for reconstruction or 
repair w r as calculated. When surveys proved impos- 
sible, dyke maps prepared by Provincial and other 
government organizations were used. These were na- 
turally not so accurate, and the results were less satis- 
factory. 

The survey results began to come in to headquarters 
in November, and were completed in December, and 
from these reports, the Technical Section made its esti- 



ENGINEERING AND LABOUR RELIEF 109 

mates and prepared plans which were put into excecu- 
tion after approval by the Technical Board. 

Ill 

Conservancy work as a rule requires long and care- General Plans 
ful planning. But in this particular instance time was 
of the essence of the problem. It could not be spared 
for the preparation of elaborate schemes. The dam- 
aged dykes totaled thousands of miles. It was clear 
that if the resources of the Commission were dissipated 
in an attempt to repair them all, none would be actually 
completed. Concentration on a few large systems must 
be the rule. It was decided that with the resources at 
its command, the Commission could afford to repair or 
reconstruct only the main dykes on the principal water- 
ways affected by the flood. Dykes on the branch 
waterways must be left to the local governments, and 
those privately owned to the owners themselves. 

For the same reason, it was further decided to con- 
fine the work to the following schedule : 

a. Repair of the dykes on the south side of the 
Yangtze from Chinkiang to Ow Chih Kow and 
of the dykes on the north side of the river from 
Kwa Chow to the Ching Kiang dyke in the 
vicinity of Tu Mao Poo, and also the repair of 
dykes in the lower regions of the Kan River in 
Kiangsi. 

b. Repair of the dykes on both sides of the Han 
River from Hankow to Chien Kiang. 



110 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

c. Repair of the dykes on both sides of the rivers 
Hsiang and Yuan and around the Tungting Lake. 

d. Repair of dykes on the Hwai River and its chief 
tributaries in North Anhwei. 

e. Repair of dykes on the Grand Canal from 
Shaopo to Pao Ying, and also closure of all 
breaches from Pao Ying to Tsing Kiang Poo. 

f . The improvement of the five outlets to the sea in 
the region east of the Grand Canal known as Li 
Hsia Ho. 

g. Restoration and flood prevention measures in 
the region of rivers Yi, Lo, and Sha in the Pro- 
vince of Honan. 

General For the guidance of the men in the field and of the 

general public, the following principles were adopted as 
general standards to be observed in carrying out the 
various engineering plans and projects, and were pub- 
lished for information. 

1. Labour relief work shall be confined to earth- 
work only. The work shall consist primarily of 
the construction of main dykes and the dredging 
of river beds. 

2. In the construction of dykes, special attention 
shall be given to the regions traversed by im- 
portant rivers, and especially to those places 
where dykes have been broken by the flood. 

3. The dykes shall be so repaired as either (a) to 
restore them to their original conditions, or (b) 
to withstand a flood of the magnitude of 1931. 



es 



I* 




ENGINEERING AND LABOUR RELIEF 111 

4. Old dilapidated dykes and those which interfere 
with the normal drainage shall be repaired, in 
the first case to an additional height and width, 
and in the second by elimination of curves, etc. 

5. New dykes may be built in place of old, provided 
the cost of the new earthwork does not exceed 
that of repairing the old dyke. 

6. Original channels of the river shall be widened 
or deepened, if necessary, for drainage of flood 
water. 

As a result of the survey, it was determined that the General Specifi- 
normal height of the dykes should be one metre above C A. Dyke Con- 
the 1931 flood level, the top of the dyke varying in width struction 
from three to eight metres. As a general rule, the out- 
side (waterside) slope was 1:3, the inside slope 1:2, 
with a toe of 1:5. These directions determined the 
cross sections of the dykes. Other details were: 
alignment of the dyke should be as straight as possible, 
and run in the direction of the current ; the soil forming 
the dyke should be coherent and firm; the grass and 
brushwood at the foot should be cleared; holes should 
be filled up ; to avoid weakening the toe of the dyke, no 
excavation should be made close to it, and all excava- 
tions should be so dug as to avoid formation of continu- 
ous ditches; earth should be piled by layers one foot 
deep and each layer should be consolidated to eight 
inches by tamping; all joints should be staggered. 1 

After preliminary survey, the ground to be excavated B. River 

, , ,. V / /rnn u\ Channelling 

was staked according to sub-sections (500 men each). 

1 See diagram of typical section* 



112 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

Excavation was done from the bank towards the centre of 
the channel. To deepen the channel of the river, por- 
tions of the bed were dammed off and any impounded 
water pumped out. Subsoil water in new channels was 
treated in the same manner. During excavation a ditch 
over two feet deep was maintained at the centre of the 
channel for drainage purposes. The slope of the bank 
was 1:2 or 1:3, depending on the nature of the soil. 
The earth excavated from the channels was used 
for building dykes, additional discharge areas for ab- 
normal run off being secured, if necessary, by pushing 
back the dykes. 

co-operation Ordinarily, the administration of relief measures in 

with Local J7 

Authorities cases of natural calamity would be in the hands of the 
Provincial authorities or the local public bodies. The 
area of the flood of 1931 transcended the boundaries of 
seven Provinces. Relief was necessarily on a national 
scale, and the National Government provided the re- 
sources for its operations. It was thus obvious that 
the policy of centralized control must be adopted as 
the general rule, and the suffering population of the 
Provinces obtain relief direct from the Commission. 
However, due to difficulties of various kinds, in certain 
cases the rigour of central control was in a measure 
relaxed. Continued efforts were made, however, to 
effect the closest co-operation with the Provincial auth- 
orities, and the articles of procedure to govern labour 
relief throughout the whole area were drafted in 
conjunction with them. Relations with the Provincial 
authorities were generally cordial, and even in those 



ENGINEERING AND LABOUR RELIEF 113 

cases in which some difficulty was met at the outset, 
steady improvement resulted from mutual experience, 
and satisfactory conditions prevailed long before opera- 
tions closed. 

The articles of procedure stipulated, inter alia, that 
at least one Assistant Engineer serving in the District 
office should be a nominee of the Provincial Govern- 
ment ; that works of an urgent nature might be initiated 
after agreement between the Provincial authorities and 
the local representative of the Commission, that where 
private lands were appropriated for dyke work, they 
should be measured and the measurements recorded in 
duplicate, one copy being sent to the Provincial Govern- 
ment for action ; that the Provincial Government should 
instruct local authorities to assist in the recruiting of 
labour; that with the consent of the Provincial Conser- 
vancy Bureau, employees of that Bureau might be 
drafted where necessary; that the Provincial Govern- 
ment would be responsible for police and military pro* 
tection of the staff of the Commission, and for the main- 
tenance of order on the works and along the routes used 
for transport of the Commission's supplies. 

For the information of other Departments of the Preparation 

of Rules and 

Commission and the guidance of our own staff in the Regulations 
Headquarters and field, Rules and Regulations were 
prepared governing the following subjects: the organi- 
zation, of the Division; the Technical Board; the 
functioning of the District Engineering offices; adver- 
tisements for foremen ; training classes for foremen ; the 
recruiting and organization of labour; the reward and 



114 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

punishment of labourers; grain allowance for bad wea- 
ther ; and Dyke Inspection. 

Labour relief during famine and flood is not un- 
known in China. There is, however, such a conspicuous 
lack of information on the subject that very little was 
found available for present day guidance. The normal 
organization employed in constructional operations is 
not adapted to those of labour relief. The problem is 
complicated by the fact that only food is used to pay 
labourers. Though it may appear that payment in kind 
and payment in cash are similar, there is in fact a very 
great difference between the two systems when actually 
carried out in the field. Not only is the process of hand- 
ling different, but the psychological reactions on the 
part of the recipients are also different. The Commis- 
sion was fortunate in having on its staff past or present 
officers of the China International Famine Relief Com- 
mission, who possessed wide experience in labour relief 
work in north China. They gave valuable suggestions 
and the above described field organization, as well as 
methods of control of the labourers, were in large mea- 
sure the result of personal conference with these gen- 
tlemen. 

Estimate of It was estimated that six months would be required 

to complete the work. A budget showing the minimum 
requirements for general expenses of the Division was 
prepared and submitted to the Commission for consi- 
deration. This budget was divided into operating ex- 
penditure and non-recurring expenditure. The estimate 
included the following items; 



ENGINEERING AND LABOUR RELIEF 115 

Operating expenditure: Per month 

Salaries and Wages $260,000 

Office Expenses 50,000 

Fuel, Oil, Salt 150,000 

Contingencies 90,000 

Total $550,000 

Six Months Operating Expenditure $3,300,000 

Non-recurring expenditure: 

Instruments and Tools $660,000 
Mat-sheds and Utensils 470,000 

Expenses for Establishing 
District & Section Offices 130,000 1,260,000 

Total General Expenses $4,560,000 

The above estimate was made at the beginning of 
the Division's activities. As time went on, funds were 
slow in coming, and, to be on the safe side, the budget 
was pruned down. For instance, instruments and tools 
were borrowed from different organizations wherever 
possible, and were not purchased by the Division. In 
many cases the labourers were required to bring their 
own tools. The privilege of free fuel and salt was can- 
celled. The contingent fund was not to be drawn upon . 
unless with special authorization. In this way, by the 
exercise of rigid economy, it was planned to reduce the 
total expenditure to $2,000,000. The final report shows 
a total expenditure of $1,830,000. Approximately 260,- 
000 tons of wheat were expended on engineering and 
labour relief. This is equivalent to about $20,000,000 
(at $74 per ton). The overhead charges thus amounted 
to slightly over 8.5 per cent of the total, a moderate per- 
centage for work of this nature. 



116 



NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 



Allocation 
of Wheat 



Italian 
Tools 



Field Work 
Division into 
Districts 



After the Department of Field Operations decided 
to allot 300,000 tons, about two-thirds, of the American 
wheat to engineering and labour relief, this Division 
proceeded to allocate the wheat to the eighteen different 
Districts on the basis of the relative requirements of each 
District. 1 A total of 258,450 tons was allocated and 
41,550 tons kept as reserve for contingencies. These 
allocations were closely followed until April, when relief 
operations indicated the necessity for revision to meet 
changed conditions at that time. 

When negotiations for remission of a portion of the 
Italian Indemnity promised to be successful, a list of 
tools and instruments needed for this work was 
despatched to Italy. This list included surveying instru- 
ments, such as levels, tapes etc.; tools, such as picks, 
shovels and spades ; light rails and tip-wagons for earth- 
work. 

The order was promptly executed. The first 
consignment of 15,000 shovels was shipped from 
Venice on November 14th 1931, and thereafter in 
rapid succession further shipments were made until 
February 24th 1932, when the last of the railroad 
material and tip wagons was sent. 

For purposes of administrative control, the flooded 
area was divided into eighteen Districts. This was 
essential in view not only of the size of the work, but 
also because of diverse conditions in different areas. 
Conditions varied according to the severity of the flood 
and to the size of the different river systems along which 
work was planned. It was decided to establish seven 

i Vide Appendix III-3 



ENGINEERING AND LABOUR RELIEF lit 

Districts on the Yangtze River; three on the Hwai River; 
two on the Han River; three for drainage work in North 
Kiangsu east of the Grand Canal ; and one district each 
for Hunan, Honan and the Grand Canal in Kiangsu 
Province. In the case of North Kiangsu, a change of 
plan necessitated the suspension of work in District No. 
15, the work being subsequently taken up by Districts 
No. 16 and No. 17. District No. 10 was handed over to 
the Hunan Flood Rehabilitation Committee. The re- 
maining sixteen Districts continued to function directly 
under the Commission till the work was completed. 

A table showing particulars of the various Districts, 
their boundaries, the length of work expressed in kilo- 
metres, the location of the District centres etc., is in- 
cluded in Appendix VI. 1 

Each District engineering office had at its head a 
District Engineer, who served concurrently as a general 
superintendent of the affairs of the Division in that Dis- 
trict. He had under his orders one or two Assistant 
Engineers, two technical assistants, and a clerical force 
of four to six men handling general affairs. The Dis- 
trict Engineer received orders direct from the Chief of 
the Division, or as the case might be, from the Engineer- 
in-Chief, in connection with the engineering and general 
affairs of the District. He was also empowered to 
assign special duties to any man in his office, such as 
labour recruiting, accounting, engineering construction, 
dealing with documents and correspondence, and the 
custody of supplies. 

The duties of the assistant engineer and the 
technical assistants were to assist the District Engineer 

1 Appendix VI-2 



118 



NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 



Section 
Organization 



Sub-section 
Organization 



in engineering work and its administration. The dis- 
tribution of the staff and the labourers ; the supervision 
and direction of the work in the Sections ; the safety of 
the staff and the labourers; the distribution of grain, 
cash and tools; and the preparation of reports on the 
progress of work in the District were some of their main 
duties. 

Each District was subdivided into eight or ten Sec- 
tions, the number varying according to the magnitude 
and nature of the work in the District. A Section Eng- 
ineer, who generally held the rank of Assistant Engineer, 
was placed in charge of the Section and received orders 
from the District Engineer. He also had a small staff 
of technical assistants and clerks. In engineering mat- 
ters his duties were to make cross sections of dykes and 
local surveys; to make field notes and to recommend 
local changes in the original project; to make estimates 
of earth work required; to direct the progress of the 
work according to schedule; to control the labourers; to 
sanction payment for work done ; to look after and re- 
port on the health and safety of labourers ; to co-operate 
as fully as possible with the local gentry and gendar- 
merie; and to make weekly reports of the progress of 
the work. 

In each Section there were officials to look after the 
recruiting and handling of labourers; another to look 
after supplies, and one or two who attended to the cor- 
respondence of the Section and its general affairs. 

Each Section was subdivided into ten Sub-Sections, 
or turns, with one foreman in charge, and, where cir- 



ENGINEERING AND LABOUR RELIEF 119 

cumstances required, an additional man serving as 
assistant foreman. Each tuan had five hundred men 
working in it, and was divided into twenty gangs, or 
pai, of twenty-five men each. A gang leader was picked 
from each gang and acted as its representative. He was 
responsible for the behaviour and work of every man 
in the gang. 

The enlistment of the field staff on the scale re- pjj 
quired by the work was not a simple matter, especially 
in view of the rapidity with which the Districts began 
to function in succession. The work was partly en- 
gineering, partly relief, the one no more important than 
the other. Besides knowledge of engineering, experi- 
ence in dealing with men, so necessary in matters of 
relief, was also required. 

It was difficult to find men possessing a combina- 
tion of both qualities, and the choice was in fact deter- 
mined principally by the engineering knowledge and 
training of the candidate. 

The number of experienced engineers required was 
so large that considerable difficulty was found in obtain- 
ing adequate personnel. The Commission was fortunate 
in being able to borrow a considerable number from 
existing conservancy authorities, river commissions, pro- 
vincial bureaus of reconstruction, etc., but the balance 
had to be found elsewhere. After the Japanese attack 
on Shanghai the political situation was such that num- 
bers of men in the service of the government were laid 
off and the Commission was able to absorb many of them. 



120 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

But by far the most difficult problem was the selec- 
tion of men for the post of foreman, who is unquestion- 
ably the most important man in the field. He has daily 
contact with the labourers. He takes note of their at- 
tendance, and their behaviour, and in a general way 
disciplines them and holds them to their tasks. At the 
direction of the Section Engineer, he set the stakes of 
the dyke and located its general position, and that of 
the pits from which earth was to be taken. As a daily 
routine he measured the amount of work done and re- 
ported the result to the Section office. Of these men 
some knowledge of calculation was required, together 
with ample common sense. They must themselves be 
capable of taking orders from superiors, but at the same 
time they should themselves be good "bosses", or leaders 
of men. The work was so extensive as to require the 
enlistment of four thousand men as foremen, and the 
difficulty of mobilizing sufficient numbers, properly 
qualified, was realized from the first. 

When the field offices began to function, a number 
of advertisements and posters for foremen in field work 
were displayed in the various cities, specifying their 
qualifications including, if possible, a training in a 
middle school, or experience in construction work. 
Salaries were fixed at $30 to $40 per month. As 
the possiblity of securing sufficient foremen was 
doubtful, special training camps were instituted for 
this purpose. But the call for foremen was so urgent 
when work was begun at so many places at the same 
time, that no opportunity was given to train the 
candidates fully. 




13. 




14. Dyke sodded to resist erosion. 



15. Left: A "flapper" tamper at 
top of swing. 




16. Right: Weighing out wheat 
with which to pay laborers. 




ENGINEERING AND LABOUR RELIEF 121 



The recruitment of labour was one of the outstand- 
ing problems of the labour relief operation. People in Labour 
the flooded districts usually expect relief as a gift and 
do not expect to work for it. It was natural therefore 
that difficulties arose when labour relief measures were 
enforced. 

Owing to divergent economic and social conditions 
in different flooded areas, it was found that on the same 
terms and nearly at the same time, there might be such 
an abundance of refugee labourers offering for employ- 
ment in a certain District that it was difficult to use them 
all, while in another place only very few labourers came 
to the work. Indeed, sometimes there was such a scar- 
city of men that they had to be transported from other 
places. 

The element of time also enters into the question of 
recruiting. There are seasons in which any number of 
men may be obtained, and there are seasons also when 
there is a surprising disappearance of workers from the 
field of operations, as for instance when spring sowing 
commences. On the other hand, after the harvest, 
labourers will again be plentiful. 

An element of doubt also exists in the minds of 
people towards all government attempts to enlist their 
services. In former years, labour for such work was 
usually impressed. Although it was not necessary ac- 
tually to resort to pressure in the present case, it was 
desirable to apply local governmental authority. Con- 
sequently all the hsien magistrates in the flooded districts 
were invited to serve as commissioners for recruiting 



122 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

labour in co-operation^ with men appointed by the Dis- 
trict Engineers. 

Perhaps the most important and difficult of all 
duties in the district at the beginning of operations was 
that of the recruiting officer. He was responsible for 
negotiating with Provincial and local authorities on 
matters concerned with recruiting refugee labour. He 
had to make visits to the various villages where famine 
labourers resided, and to make estimates of the number 
of men willing to work and acceptable as labourers. 

Proceduw The recruitin g officers usually obtained a list of the 

famine sufferers from public bodies in the various 
provinces and from relief societies and used it when 
going to the villages. The recruited labourers were 
given a badge number. When twenty-five labourers 
had been recruited they were organized into a gang. 
The most intelligent of the group was made the boss of 
the gang and given the No. 1 badge. As soon as a full 
gang was recruited, they were sent to a designated place 
for work. Families were prevented from following the 
gang unless absolutely necessary. The names of the 
gang bosses were clearly shown in the rolls. All matters 
of concern to the labourers were explained to them clear- 
ly. The recruiting officers told them that the construction 
of these dykes was an endeavour on the part of the 
National Government to obtain permanent security for 
the people ; that their labour would be paid for from relief 
supplies ; that everybody should work hard in support of 
the good purpose of the Government. When a sufficient 
number of labourers had thus been recruited in one 



ENGINEERING AND LABOUR RELIEF 123 

village, the recruiting officer moved to another village 
for the same purpose. When the recruited labourers 
arrived at the sections, the Section Engineers reorganized 
them and gave them new gang numbers. 

Considerable difficulty was experienced by recruit- 
ing officers in procuring sufficient refugee labourers along 
the Yangtze River. The population appeared to have a 
reserve of food in spite of the flood and, being rice eaters, 
were not keen to accept an offer of wheat as a wage. In 
order that the work might be done in time it was neces- 
sary, in some instances, to throw open recruiting to men 
who were not really flood refugees. In other cases, 
emergency relief refugee camps were transported en 
masse to localities where labourers were scarce. In still 
others it was necessary actually to import outside labour- 
ers. This measure was generally opposed by natives and 
local authorities who claimed that the importation of 
large numbers of outside refugees might create a menace 
to the peace of the neighborhood. 

Entirely different conditions existed in the Districts 
on the Hwai River. There, for long years, flood and 
famine have been the rule rather than the exception, and 
consequently it was quite difficult at one time to absorb 
them all. Had the ordinary procedure been adopted by 
the Division in enlisting refugee labourers, many would 
have been left out. The rules were, however, varied to 
allow of more general relief. Even women were recruit- 
ed in special cases where it was difficult to keep them 
away. 



124 

lumber 
tecruited 



Methods of 
Paying for 
Earthwork 



NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

To accomplish the work planned, it was estimated 
that one million men would be needed during the course 
of the four or five months preceding the next high water 
season. That number was roughly distributed as 
follows : 



Along the Yangtze River Basin 

Han River Basin 

Hwai River Basin 

Grand Canal and North 
Kiangsu 



500,000 men 

100,000 

200,000 



99 
99 



200,000 



Total 1,000,000 men 

It was also planned that before the end of April, the 
peak number of recruits would be reached, and that after 
the month of May, steps would be taken to send them 
back to their farms. From reports coming from various 
Districts, it was found that the numbers in the original 
estimate roughly coincided with the actual numbers re- 
cruited. During April and May 1932 the total number 
of labourers employed by the seven Districts on the Yang- 
tze River was approximately 547,000 ; on the Han River 
about 97,000; on the Hwai River 170,000, on the Grand 
Canal and the region to the east 47,000; in Honan (18th 
District) 23,000; in Hunan 210,000; thus making a total 
of 1,100,000 men. 

After the arrival of the refugee labourers on the spot, 
they were assigned to one borrow pit clearly marked. 
They began to dig the earth and to pile it on to the dyke. 
At the end of each week, the technical assistants together 
with foremen measured these pits in the following way: 



ENGINEERING AND LABOUR RELIEF 125 

first, the length and breadth of the pits were measured, 
which would give the horizontal area; next, the depth 
at many points was measured, (the number of points 
depending upon the regularity or the irregularity of the 
bottom of the pit) and the average depth calculated. 
The two results were multiplied to obtain the volume of 
the pit, which represented the quantity of earth excavated 
within that week. 

Attempts, usually unsuccessful, were sometimes 
made to deceive the foremen or technical assistants. 

When the volume of earth work was checked and 
found correct, a standard unit price was applied by the 
foremen to determine the amount of wheat due to each 
gang, and a Wheat Requisition in quadruplicate was 
signed by the Section Engineer, who retained the fourth 
copy, (white) forwarding the other three copies to the 
District Engineer for approval and signature. The 
District Engineer retained the third copy, (red) forward- 
ed the second copy, (yellow) to the Division for record 
and file, and handed the first white sheet to the gang 
boss. The gang boss presented it to the nearest Com- 
missary depot and obtained the wheat. This was analog- 
ous to encashment of a check at a bank. 

The Wheat Requisition Form constituted the basic 
evidence of expenditure of wheat for earthwork done, 
and was forwarded by the wheat depot to the Commis- 
sary Division for custody and final accounting. The gang 
bosses were required to affix their finger-prints, but this 
was usually difficult to enforce. On the whole, there were 
very few cases of irregularity or of wrong delivery on 
account of insufficient identification. 



126 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

To avoid the possibility of any dispute between the 
gang boss and the labourers the amount due to each 
labour gang was clearly posted up. 

In the Districts of North Anhwei practice varied 
somewhat from that prescribed in the regulations in this 
respect. The foremen after calculating the amount of 
earthwork, signed and handed to the gang boss a Wheat 
Requisition, who exchanged it for Wheat Certificates at 
the Section Office in denominations of five hundred and 
one hundred catties. These Certificates were cashable 
for wheat at the depots. They were negotiable like bank 
notes, and were much appreciated by the labourers. 

Wage Rates The following were the rates of payment : Earth 

taken from borrow pits within 50 metres of the dyke 
was paid from 25 cents to 40 cents per fong. When 
borrow pits were outside the 50 metre zone, 5 cents extra 
were paid per fong for every 20 metres outside the zone. 
When earth was carried to special heights an extra pay- 
ment was made per fong. The District Engineers were 
permitted to use their discretion in modifying these 
rates to suit peculiar local conditions. Tamping was paid 
at ten cents a fong. Although the price for earthwork 
was stated in terms of money, payment was made in 
wheat and flour. Wheat was paid out at the uniform rate 
of 7% cents and flour at the rate of 10 cents per catty. 
Where the local market price was considerably lower 
than these figures, the necessary adjustment was made by 
increasing the money wage per fong rather than by 
reducing the price of the wheat or flour. 

1 One fong contains 100 cubic feet, Chinese, and is equivalent to 3.7 
cubic meters or 4.84 cubic yard. 



ENGINEERING AND LABOUR RELIEF 127 

The wheat gave the labourers a means of subsistence. 
They needed other absolute necessities which could only 
be obtained by cash. Accordingly, provision was made 
to pay labourers in the five Districts in Hupeh twenty 
per cent in cash. District No. 9 on the Han River was 
heavily infested with "Red" bandits, and transportation 
was extremely hazardous and expensive for this reason. 
Cash was the only possible means of payment. Labourers 
in District No. 4 on the Kan River, could not eat wheat 
and, in addition, transportation was exceedingly difficult. 
Therefore, towards the end of operations in that District 
they were paid in cash. Again, in places where trans- 
portation was difficult or impracticable on account of 
the lowness of the water in the canals it was easier to 
supply cash than wheat. 

Over so wide a territory absolutely uniform treat- 
ment as regards methods of payment, forms of requisi- 
tion, unit prices and so forth, was impossible. Refugee 
labourers generally could not wait for payment until 
after earthwork had been officially accepted. In a num- 
ber of cases, wheat or flour for food had to be advanced 
to them before they could begin work. Similarly, loans 
were necessary to carry them over periods of inclement 
weather. And occasionally payments had to be made 
on account, pending official approval of measurements. 
As a result, an absolute correspondence between the 
individual earthwork sheet and the individual wheat re- 
quisition sheet was impossible. Relief phases of the 
work properly entered into consideration and, to that 
extent, introduced certain statistical irregularities. 



128 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

Tools As the plans accepted by the Commission would 

require over a million labourers at the height of the work, 
the matter of tools was clearly important. Their type 
had to be decided and their purchase arranged. 

At the beginning it was planned to purchase 200,000 
spades, 80,000 picks, 4,000,000 feet of hemp ropes, 
300,000 bamboo carrying poles, 600,000 bamboo carry- 
ing pans, 6,000 tamping stones. But time was too short 
to secure delivery of this huge quantity of supplies, nor 
was money for this purpose available in sufficient amount 
at the time. 

Tools ordered in Italy were slow in arriving. Mean- 
while the labourers could not work without tools. The 
District Offices were therefore instructed to purchase a 
sufficient quantity for the initial stages of the work. In 
January 1932 the first consignment of Italian tools arrived 
in Shanghai. Unfortunately Chinese labourers were not 
accustomed to their use, and in many cases the tools were 
actually refused. The result was that the Division was 
compelled to require the labourers to provide their own 
tools. The following is a list of tools commonly used on 
the work. 

1. Spades. 

2. Picks for loosening hard earth. 

3. Shovels for squaring borrow pits and smoothing 
dyke sides. 

4. Shallow earth baskets made of strip bamboo. 
(One man carried two baskets, one at each end of 
a bamboo pole.) 



ENGINEERING AND LABOUR RELIEF 129 

5. Deep baskets made of strip bamboo. (The deep 
basket is much larger than the shallow basket, 
and is carried by two men, one at each end of a 
carrying pole.) 

6. Rake for levelling heaped earth. 

7. Wide picks for crushing hard lumpy earth. 

8. Tamping stones or "flappers", stone rollers, 
tamping logs all for consolidating earth. 

9. Foot-power and mechanical power pumps for 
draining away water in pits. 

10. Wooden baskets and cloth bags for draining away 
water in pits. 

11. Walking planks for men to walk over swampy 
places. 

A serious problem was that of shelter for the labour- shelter 
ers. The flood had destroyed most of the buildings near 
the river. In many cases the refugee labourers were 
found collected in places far from their homes. 

Sheds were designed to accommodate 25 men and 
measured 30 feet long, 14 feet wide. The roof and 
side walls were supported by 11 semi-circular bamboo 
trusses and 7 rafters. The spacing of the trusses was 
three feet. One shelter required 30 pieces of bamboo, 
and 50 pieces of mat, which were purchased locally. 

The total number of labourers to be accommodated 
was so large that it was not feasible to make full pro- 
vision for all of them. It was necessary to differentiate 



130 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

between those who came from a distance and had to be 
quartered in the mat-sheds, and those who belong- 
ed to nearby villages, to which they could return when 
the day's work was over. 



Co-operation Within the eighteen Districts, whose work was 

with Other 

Organizations directed from the Head Office, it was found in some cases 
to be of mutual benefit to entrust a portion of the work 
to charitable institutions of good standing, or to govern- 
ment organizations. In certain other cases, in which 
the work was considered essential, but where active 
participation by the Commission was not warranted, 
a subsidy of a definite amount was granted to a respon- 
sible organization for the execution of the work. 

The following are outstanding instances of this 
nature : 

1. The China International Famine Relief Commission 
was entrusted with Sections 1 and 2 of District No. 4 
and Section 11 of District No. 5 on both banks of the 
Yangtze River in the vicinity of Kiukiang and Wusueh. 
This involved the repair or reconstruction of some 134 
kilometres of main dykes. The work was paid for in 
wheat, or its equivalent in cash, supplied by this 
Commission, but the China International Famine 
Relief Commission provided the personnel and over- 
head expenses. 

2. The Grand Canal Commission of Kiangsu Province 
co-operated closely with this Commission in restoring 
the greater part of the damaged dykes along the lower 



ENGINEERING AND LABOUR RELIEF 131 

part of the Grand Canal. To that Commission the 
National Flood Relief Commission loaned 10,000 tons 
of wheat, originally allocated to Farm Rehabilitation, 
in addition to a subsidy of $200,000 in cash. 

3, The Chinese Foreign Famine Relief Committee of 
Shanghai offered to repair the six principal breaches 
in the vicinity of Kaoyu on the Grand Canal. The 
Commission in answer to their offer, subsidized that 
Committee to the extent of 2,000 tons of wheat. The 
balance necessary to complete the work was provided 
by the Committee, and it has been reported that the 
total expenditure incurred from its funds amounted 
to $481,000. The work was not in a strict sense of 
the word a restoration, as the original construction 
which was washed away had been of stone masonry, 
while the newly built dykes are of earth. However, 
these dykes are well and solidly constructed and there 
is no doubt that they are adequate to meet ordinary 
emergencies. 

4. The Shantung Grand Canal Commission approached 
the National Flood Relief Commission for help in the 
work on the Grand Canal and its tributaries in that 
Province. After some negotiation it was decided to 
allow them a subsidy of 3,000 tons of wheat on certain 
conditions, one of which was that the Provincial 
treasury should provide $500,000 to complete the 
whole work projected. 

Of all the Provinces in which engineering and Labour Relief 
labour relief work was undertaken, Hupeh had the m 
largest share. In the five Districts established in that 



132 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

Province great difficulties were experienced from Com- 
munist bandits, from delay in wheat deliveries, from 
obstruction by people with varied interests, and, in some 
cases, from incompetence, or indeed from delinquency 
on the part of the Commission's own employees. The 
long distance separating Hupeh from Shanghai rendered 
close control impossible, and so permitted a latitude to 
the local officials of the Commission, which was misused 
on occasion. With a view to remedying this situation, a 
committee was appointed at Hankow on April 20th 1932, 
known as the Supervisory Committee of Labour Relief 
in Hupeh. Power was given to this Committee to deal 
with any situation that might arise locally. Mr. Li Hsieh, 
Chief Engineer of the Commission, was appointed Chair- 
man of the Committee, its members being in part 
officials of the Commission, in part representatives of the 
Provincial authorities. Control of the five Districts in 
the Province was concentrated in this Committee, and 
efficiency was greatly enhanced. The Committee func- 
tioned to the end of December 1932. 

Labour Relief During the flood of 1931 a large area of the Honan 

in Honan to G 

plain was under water, and relief was urgently needed 
there as elsewhere, but no sufficient representation from 
that Province was received. Indeed only the briefest 
mention was made by its representatives, details being 
entirely omitted. 

However, the Commission sent its own engineers to 
conduct a reconnaissance and as a result, established 
District No. 18 with office at Chengchow at the end of 
January. In view of the difficulty of communication, 



ENGINEERING AND LABOUR RELIEF 133 

and of special conditions, the organization of the office 
differed somewhat from that usual in other Districts. The 
Commission's Superintendent of Emergency Relief was 
appointed to serve concurrently as Superintendent of the 
District Office, assisted by two of the local gentry, who 
were public spirited and enjoyed the confidence of the 
people. One of these was appointed chief of the Sa Ho 
Office in charge of eight Sections ; and the other, chief of 
Yi Ho, Lo Ho Office in charge of five Sections. 

Towards the end of May, the Commission was ap- 
proached with requests from the Province for further 
extension of relief work. As a result of the report made 
by the Commission's investigator, considerable work was 
undertaken on the Ying Ho, and Bishop W. C. White's 
Committee was invited to take charge of the work on 
the Tong, Tan, and Hwai Rivers, assisted in technical 
matters by the Chief Engineer of Yellow River Bureau of 
Honan. 

The flooded regions in Hunan Province were very Labour Relief 
extensive. They were mainly in the vicinity of the Tung- 
ting Lake, along the rivers Siang, Tze, Yuen, Lee and at 
the connecting channels with the Yangtze River, namely 
Ngo Chi Row, Sung Tze Kow, Hu Tow Row, Tiao Yen 
Row. After a preliminary survey it was decided to 
undertake labour relief in the five hsiens round the lake 
most severely affected by the flood, viz., Han Hsien, 
Yuen Riang, Siang Yin, Han Shou, Chang Teh. An 
allocation of 18,000 tons of wheat was made for the 
Province. 



134 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

Subsequently it appeared that the remaining six 
hsiens around the lake were almost as badly affected as 
the original five. An additional allocation of 12,000 
tons was made, bringing up the total to 30,000 tons for 
the eleven hsiens around the lake. 

An Engineering and Labour Relief Office for Hunan, 
District No. 10, was organized at Changsha, the Commis- 
sioner of Reconstruction of the Province being invited to 
act as co-superintendent of the Office. An extensive 
system of Section offices was also planned. But, before 
the work could proceed, representations were received 
from the Hunan Flood Rehabilitation Committee that the 
dykes on the Tungting Lake were privately owned, thus 
differing fundamentally from those on the Yangtze 
River. It was urged that it would be more advantageous 
to grant loans to the dyke owners than to do the work 
direct, and that by combining the allocation for Emerg- 
ency Relief and Farm Rehabilitation, totalling 20,000 
tons, with that for Labour Relief, totalling 30,000 tons, 
50,000 tons would be available for loans. It was fur- 
ther suggested that the loans could be secured by title 
deeds, or by negotiable securities supplied by the land 
owner directly benefited by the loan ; also, that the loans 
should be repayable in two years in two instalments and 
that the original amount should thus be kept intact for 
the purpose of further conservancy work on Tungting 
Lake. 

The Commission accepted the request which was 
strongly backed by the Provincial gentry and important 
officials, District Office No. 10 was withdrawn, and the 



ENGINEERING AND LABOUR RELIEF 185 

work handed over to the Hunan Flood Rehabilitation 
Committee, Later, with the concurrence of the Provinci- 
al authorities, the allocation was reduced from 50,000 
to 42,500 tons of wheat. No final report has as yet been 
received as to the quantity of wheat or its equivalent in 
cash actually loaned out, or as to the exact length of 
dykes repaired, except a brief telegram announcing a 
total fongage and mileage. 

VI 

While all local engineering work was planned for Difficulties: 

. _ _ . , 0>0pposition 

the general benefit of the inhabitants concerned, yet the from property 
individual property owner might be adversely affected. 
For instance, in the execution of the plans, land was re- 
quired for borrow pits, for the sites of new dykes, for new 
channels, or for drainage purposes. These lands were re- 
quisitioned with or without compensation as governed 
by local usage, and the owners naturally opposed the 
measure, hoping to escape at the expense of others. In 
all cases of this kind, of which the files would fill a 
cabinet, the decision was guided by the desire to benefit 
the majority. When pressure was found necessary it was 
applied unhesitatingly in one form or another. Work 
could not be delayed on account of the opposition 
of a few recalcitrants. Time was more important than 
exact justice. 

There was a general rush for the resources of the (2) Limited 

Resources 

Division, which in the main consisted of 300,000 tons 
of wheat. Although these were limited to certain lines 
of work, the public did not know this, and besieged the 
Division with requests for more. Pressure of various 



136 



NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 



(8) Variations 
in Wage 
Levels 



WUnsuitability 
of Tools 



(5) Communists 
and Bandits 



kinds was applied, but was steadily resisted, only those 
proposals being accepted which were clearly within the 
scope of the Commission's programme. 

Engineering and Labour Relief differs from free 
relief, in that while the latter is a gift, which is always 
accepted without question, the former is by way of pay- 
ment for labour performed, which usually, though not 
always, has a market value. It was not simply a case of 
feeding the hungry; it was a case also of paying for 
services rendered. As the market value of labour varies 
in each locality, uniform distribution of wheat was found 
difficult of application. As all Districts were inter- 
connected, a ruling, tending to raise a unit price in one 
Section, invariably induced the neighboring Sections to 
make a similar demand. 

The nature of the soil varied at different localities, 
and the kind of tool required varied accordingly. The 
tools available were in many cases unsuitable ; in others 
they were of a type to which the labourers were un- 
accustomed. 

Banditry had a very serious effect on the work. 
In Hupeh, where bandits were rampant, offices were 
plundered, men taken into captivity. Appeals were made 
to the military for protection. Some were effective, 
others were not. Even when they were effective, the 
bandits returned directly after the army moved on. Not 
only did the regular bandits harass the work, but the 
common people, rendered homeless by the bandits, fre- 
quently emulated bandit practice to keep themselves 
going. In the areas held by the Reds and by bandits, no 




17. Ruined groin repaired. 




18. In certain districts new drainage channels were required rather than dykes. 




19. Where the soil alongside was not suitable, proper earth was transported from 
a distance in sampans. 




20. Approximately 1,400,000 labourers were required to restore the dykes. 



ENGINEERING AND LABOUR RELIEF 

less than 50 field workers were taken prisoner. Of 
these, 47 were released after protracted negotiations. 
Three are still missing. 

The experience in District No. 7 was typical. It was 
situated on the middle Yangtze above Chenglingki. If 
there was difficulty in transporting wheat up to Cheng- 
lingki, the base depot, the difficulty was multiplied many 
times when the wheat was further trans-shipped to the 
various distribution centres of the District. This formed 
the chief cause of delay of work in this District. The 
Communists were so near the Commission's staff, that 
the latter were actually in daily contact with them. One 
survey party at Cho Pao Kow was captured by 
them, and thereafter every action, such as time of 
work, method of wheat distribution, etc., must first receive 
the approval of the Communist leader. When the wheat 
delivery was slightly delayed, the Commission's men 
were held as hostages pending a more prompt delivery. 
Men were kidnapped, killed by stray bullets and murder- 
ed in cold blood. Added to all this, the obstructive 
tactics of the local civil authorities and notorious mem- 
bers of the gentry were responsible for many interrup- 
tions to the progress made in this District. Under the 
circumstances some of the plans had to be abandoned, 
others were only partly finished. 

The Division had to perform one task for which it Handling 
was not prepared; viz., the handling of operat- Fmances 
ing expenses in the field offices. It was the general 
opinion of the Commission, when the Division was or- 
ganized, that this important matter should be handled 



138 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

by the Department of Finance, for all branches of field 
operations. It was confidently expected that the Head- 
quarters of the Commission would send special men to 
the offices of the Engineering and Labour Relief Division 
to administer the funds. Thus there would be uniformity 
of procedure in remittance and in accounting, and the 
Division could concentrate its entire attention on the 
management of its own affairs. Consequently neither in 
the organization or budget for the head office nor in 
those for the field staff was provision made to enlist men 
for the handling of funds. So, as it turned out, when 
funds were needed at the field offices, there was no ma- 
chinery for their custody and distribution, or to account 
for their expenditure. Under these circumstances, the 
Engineering and Labour Relief Division was compelled 
to undertake this additional duty, and to assume the im- 
mense responsibility of handling and accounting for very 
large sums of money. 

VII 

summary of The engineering work of the Commission has been 

Work Done A i i -n i T i r 

accurately described as colossal. The amount of earth, 
work done by the 16 Districts under the direct control of 
the Engineering and Labour Division was 115,314,963 
cubic metres, (31,135,040 fongs). Hunan Rehabilitation 
Committee reported 34,911,300 cubic metres (9,426,050 
fongs) and the Shantung Grand Canal Commission 
2,837,500 cubic metres (766,892 fongs). Thus the grand 
total of the earthwork done was 153,063,763 cubic metres 
,(41,327,982 fongs). This, completed practically in six 
months, amounts to two-thirds of the total earthwork 



ENGINEERING AND LABOUR RELIEF 139 

of the Panama Canal. Another graphic illustration may 
be given. With the amount of earth moved, as above 
stated, a dyke two metres high and two metres broad 
could have been constructed round the earth at the 
equator. 

The work was distributed as follows : 
Dyke Work Length (Kms.) 

Yangtze River 1,812 

Kan River 634 

Hwai River 946 

Han River 337 

Grand Canal, Kiangsu 209 

Yi, Lo, Sha Ying Rivers, Honan 370 

Grand Canal, Shantung 122 

Hunan Flood Rehabilitation Committee 3000 1 7,430 

Channelling Work Length (Kms.) 

North Kiangsu 94 

North Anhwei 26 

Honan 168 288 



Culverts and Masonry Work 

Honan masonry protection to river bank 55 kilometres 

Anhwei 24 culverts 

See Appendix VI-4 for tables showing detailed in- 
formation regarding work in each Engineering District. 

As stated above, for purposes of standardized pay- unit cost 
ment, the price at which wheat was paid out was assum- 
ed to be 7 l / 2 cents per catty. However, the price at which 

1 As reported 



140 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

the Grain Exchange Committee was able to sell wheat 
upon the market was approximately $75.00 per ton, or 
only 5 cents per catty. Using the latter rate, the average 
cost of earthwork per cubic metre was calculated to be 
15 cents, or 56 cents per fong. This average applies to 
sixteen Districts which reported a total of 115,314,963 
cubic metres of earthwork done. 

Payment was made to the gang in accordance with 
the amount of work done. Each man's portion averaged 
ordinarily from five to eight catties (or 6.65 to 10.64 
pounds of wheat) per diem. This was more than the in- 
dividual could eat and there is no doubt that relief was 
afforded to many members of the families of laborers as 
well as to the laborers themselves. Thus, from the point 
of view of relief, as well as from the technical point of 
view of dyke repairing, the work of this Division was 
of the highest importance. 

VIII 

inspection of The size of the work and the multitude of workers 

demanded that a system of progress inspection be put 
.^ operation, to ensure the diligence of the staff, the 
conformity of work with the standards, the careful dis- 
tribution of wheat in accordance with the rules. The 
Commission had an Inspectorate, but its staff could not 
be expected to judge of technical matters in the field. 
Engineers of recognized standing were appointed to do 
this regular technical inspection, and on many occasions, 
engineers from the head office were also sent out for 
special inspection duties in the field. The five Districts 



ENGINEERING AND LABOUR RELIEF 141 

in Hupeh Province were under constant supervision by 
the Hupeh Supervisory Committee. 

Besides the above, the Chief of the Division and the 
Chief Engineer made frequent inspection trips to the 
field and thus kept in personal touch with the actual 
work. 

As the dykes were being finished in the summer of summer 
1932, the level of the rivers began to rise, and the pos- nspec lon 
sibility of high water endangering the freshly built dykes 
was apparent. A system of dyke inspection was con- 
sequently initiated and precautionary measures under- 
taken in the event of a breach or wash-away of any part 
of a dyke. 

A dyke being a continuous structure stretching for 
many miles, it is clear that one weak spot may render 
the whole dyke useless for purposes of protection. The 
establishment of a system of inspection of the dykes 
during high water season was thus a necessary part of 
the whole programme of dyke building. No new dyke 
built with earth can be regarded as an entirely depend- 
able barrier against the erosion caused by a swift current 
in a season when heavy rain and sudden storms are fre- 
quent. 

The system of inspection adopted made use of the 
existing organization of the Districts, by combining 
several adjacent Districts along the river to form one 
inspection District, to which a chief inspector responsible 
for the District was appointed. In addition there was 
close co-operation with local authorities. These measures 
were sufficient to detect any sign of weakness on the 



142 



Closure of 
Work and 
Transfer to 
National 
Economic 
Council 



NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

dyke structure at an early stage and thus enabled the 
application of remedial measures before a serious danger 
developed. 

The following inspectorates were established : 

(a) For Yangtze River and Grand Canal. Headquarters 
at Chinkiang (Districts 1 and 14.) 

(b) For Yangtze and Kan Rivers. Headquarters at An- 
king (Districts, 2, 3, and 4.) 

(c) For Yangtze and Han Rivers. Headquarters at Han- 
kow (Districts 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9.) 

(d) For Hwai River. Headquarters at Pengpu (Districts 
11, 12, and 13.) 

The Engineering Inspectorate and the inspecting 
stations were established in July, 1932, and closed at the 
end of September 1932, when the water receded. 

IX 

Field operations were started during January and 
February 1932. By July 1st not only had the dykes been 
restored to their original condition, but in most cases, 
their height was raised to one metre above the 1931 
flood level. They were thus in a condition to withstand 
the pressure of a rise distinctly above the normal. 

The work of organization started in October- 
November 1931; field operations two months later. In 
four months most of the breaches had been closed and 
thus the annual spring rise was held in check. In eight 
months, the work of dyke reconstruction (with the 



ENGINEERING AND LABOUR RELIEF 143 

exception of some isolated cases) was completed accord- 
ing to schedule. 

The original plan was to close the field offices at 
the end of June 1932, but owing to special circumstances 
the time was extended one or two months according to 
the locality. In all cases, the field offices were closed at 
the end of September 1932. District and Section Offices 
were required to hand in balances of current funds to 
Shanghai Head Office for transmission to the Finance 
Department of the Commission. Office equipment, in- 
struments, tools, sundry articles, books, maps and charts 
in connection with final reports were handed over to an 
officer designated for the purpose. 

All work, including that not yet finished, was 
transferred to the Hydraulic Engineering Bureau of the 
National Economic Council by the first of October. The 
unfinished work was to be carried on according to the 
original plans of the Commission. 

The District Superintendents were required to send 
in the records of the staff of and above the grade of 
Assistant Engineer before July 15th 1932, to be trans- 
mitted to the Commission with recommendation for re- 
cognition and reward. In the case of grades of and 
below those of technical assistant or general clerk, those 
with a good record were given letters of commendation 
signed by the Superintendent. Those with excellent re- 
cords were specially treated. 

The Districts were required to send in their full 
report on working conditions, operating expenses, and 



144 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

other results, together with statistical data for considera- 
tion and report by the Division. 

X 

* n or( ^ er that *k e Commission might approve and 
accept the work of this Division officially, the Chairman 
appointed an Inspection Committee whose duty it was 
to inspect the work and to report the result of that inspec- 
tion to himself. Along with this official committee a 
large number of prominent personages were invited to 
inspect and to make observations on the work done by 
the Commission. Notable among them may be mentioned 
ex-Premier Hsu Shih-Ying, who is also Chairman of the 
National Famine Relief Commission ; Mr. Chu Ming Yi, 
Secretary of the Central Executive Yuan; Mr. Ling 
Kong Hao, Secretary of Shanghai Bankers Association ; 
Chang Shou Yung, ex- Vice Minister of Finance ; Dr. Wu 
Lien Teh of the National Quarantine Service ; Mr. Woo 
San, representing the National Highway Association ; Mr. 
Loo Pan Wei, representing the Mayor of Greater Shang- 
hai ; Dr. David Brown, Chairman of China Famine Relief 
U.S.A. Inc.; Mr. Wen Lai Ting, Chairman Shanghai 
Branch, Chinese National Red Cross ; Mr. George Fitch, 
Secretary Foreign Y.M.C. A. ; Mr. A. P. Finch of the North 
China Daily News ; Mr. A. H. Ford, of the Pan-Pacific As- 
sociation; Mr. Gerald Yorke, of Reuters; Baroness Un- 
gern Sternberg; Dr. Henny; Colonel J. L. Huang of the 
Officer's Moral Endeavour Society ; Messrs. Chien Wah, 
Loh Yee,Chu Yung Kwong, Li Mon Ping, representing 
the Chinese press; Sun Fah Hsu, ex-Governor of Shan- 
tung; Mr. Wen Cheng Foo, ex-Commissioner of Tibet; 



ENGINEERING AND LABOUR RELIEF 145 

Dr. Chen Ching Tao, ex-Minister of Finance ; Mr. Chen 
Sze Chang; Mr. K. C. Hu, Mr. P. Y. Hu, representing the 
Ministry of Industry and Commerce ; and others. 

In the management of this tour assistance was given 
by the Officer's Moral Endeavour Society, which organi- 
zation was requested to arrange the first part of the pro- 
gramme for the party. 

The tour started at Shanghai on November 26th 
1932. On the 28th, at Nanking, the completed dyke 
work was formally dedicated. The party then proceeded 
and inspected the important works on the Yangtze and 
Han Rivers. On December 14th it left Hankow for 
Honan by railway to inspect the earth work and masonry 
construction at Yien Cheng, Loyang, Men Tsin, etc. It 
returned via Pengpu on December 19th, whence members 
inspected work in Northern Anhwei; from there it 
proceeded to Yang Chow and Kao Yu on December 22nd, 
to inspect the works on the Grand Canal. Finally a de- 
putation went to Tungtai to inspect the drainage works 
on the Lee Sha Ho, returning to Shanghai on January 
9th, 1933, thus completing the tour of inspection. 

The official Inspection Committee rendered their 
written report to the Chairman of the Commission, in 
which it expressed satisfaction and stressed the import- 
ance of efficient maintenance of these works. 1 

1 Vide Appendix VI-5 



CHAPTER VII 

Hygiene and Sanitation 

It is an accepted belief and fact that all flood dis- 
asters are accompanied and followed by epidemics and 
disease, and that more lives are lost from disease than 
directly from drowning or from starvation. The reasons 
for this state of affairs are obvious. In the first place, 
although in some regions a sudden break of a dyke may 
cause the drowning of a large number of people, in most 
regions there is sufficient warning to prevent the number 
of deaths from reaching a high figure. Secondly, the 
terribly insanitary conditions with which the refugees 
necessarily have to contend in flood times together with 
such unusual conditions as lack of shelter and food, ex- 
posure to the elements, crowded living conditions in 
refugee camps, predispose to all kinds of disease. It is 
true that the Chinese coolie and farmer are not used to 
modern sanitary conditions even in the best of times, but 
the above-mentioned extreme conditions brought about 
by the flood certainly break down any immunity barriers 
and encourage the spread of sickness. 

As will be seen from the following pages of the 
report, the diseases encountered may be classified as 
follows: 

L Diseases due to insufficient and improper food: 

1. Gastro-intestinal disorders 

2. Mai-nutrition 



HYGIENE AND SANITATION 147 

II. Specific infectious diseases of the gastro-intestinal 
system : 

1. Dysentery 

2. Typhoid and para-typhoid fever 

3. Cholera. 

IE. Other specific infectious diseases: 

1. Small-pox 

2. Malaria 

3. Measles 

4. Typhus fever 

5. Meningitis, influenza, etc. 

IV. Diseases of the skin, particularly scabies, ulcers, 
impetigo and fungus infections of the skin and scalp. 

V. Diseases of the eye, particularly trachoma. 

The Department of Hygiene and Sanitation of the creation of 

Department 

Commission was established immediately following 
the creation of the Commission. After a preliminary 
survey, a scheme of organization and program of 
work was adopted, and squads of workers were 
immediately sent to the field. It was emphasized 
from the very beginning that preventive work should 
go hand in hand with measures of medical relief. 
The reader will note in the following pages the amount 
of work done in the prevention of epidemics. Such 
measures as extensive vaccination and inoculation cam- 
paigns, isolation of contagious cases, provision of safe 



148 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

water, building of proper latrines, health propaganda, 
anti-fly work etcetera were undoubtedly responsible for 
the saving of innumerable lives. 

The work of this Department was particularly stup- 
endous because of the extensive area of the flooded 
region, which included large cities as well as villages 
and rural areas. Most of the cities have nothing of the 
nature of a modern health department and the Provincial 
authorities were doing practically nothing in anti- 
epidemic work. It therefore fell to this department to 
organize its forces from the very beginning in such a way 
as to function in preventive and anti-epidemic work as 
well as in medical relief, and in the rural areas as well 
as in large crowded cities. 

Modern hospital facilities were lacking everywhere 
except in a few of the cities. All mission hospitals in the 
flood area helped a great deal in giving accommodation 
to the more serious cases, but, at the height of the flood, 
the number of beds available was very much below the 
requirements, particularly since a number of the hospitals 
were flooded and were therefore not functioning. The 
Department was obliged to provide emergency hospital 
accommodation in a great many places so that proper 
care might be given to the sick flood-sufferers. Tempor- 
ary clinics were also organized to look after the less 
serious cases, and travelling clinics took care of those in 
more distant and rural areas. When the dyke construc- 
tion work was commenced the travelling clinics were 
re-arranged so that the workers were provided with 
medical relief and protective measures. 



HYGIENE AND SANITATION 149 

It was considered quite remarkable that cholera did 
not break out in epidemic proportions in 1931, and 
typhus did not appear at all except in a few isolated 
instances. Due precautions were taken from the very 
beginning in regard to those two diseases, and proper 
preparations were made to prevent their appearance. It 
was always a relief that when the reports from the dif- 
ferent hospitals, clinics or medical units were read it 
was found that they did not mention these diseases. 

Cholera did appear in the summer of 1932 in a 
serious form and on a widespread scale, but by this 
time there was no more flood and the people had return- 
ed to their homes. It would be difficult to imagine what 
might have happened if the epidemic of cholera had 
broken out in 1931, when hundreds of thousands of 
people were crowded together in refugee camps. A full 
description of the epidemic and of the work done by the 
Department in connection with it will be found in these 
pages. 

The mortality among infants and children was of 
course especially high. Exposure and lack of proper 
food predisposed to diseases such as gastro-intestinal 
disorders, dysentery, small-pox, measles and pneumonia. 

Malaria was undoubtedly responsible for a great 
many deaths and much suffering. It was impossible for 
the Department, with the short time and the limited 
means at its disposal, to undertake a proper campaign 
against it. A great deal of quinine was distributed and 
considerable work in propaganda was done. In addi- 
tion, a general survey was made in regard to the disease 



150 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

(vide infra) which has now been transferred to the 
Central Field Health Station so that the studies may be 
continued. 

With reference to morbidity and mortality rates for 
the flooded regions there are no accurate statistics avail- 
able. The College of Agriculture and Forestry of the 
University of Nanking co-operated with the Commission 
in making an economic survey of the flood areas along 
the Yangtze and Hwai Rivers. At the request of the 
Department of Hygiene and Sanitation certain informa- 
tion in regard to health conditions was included in 
the survey. According to statistics published by the 
College (1) the survey showed that during the first one 
hundred days after the flood appeared there was report- 
ed as high a death rate as twenty-two per mille among the 
farm families. Fifty-five per cent of these deaths were of 
males. Approximately one-fourth of all deaths were 
caused by drowning and seventy per cent by disease. 
About thirty per cent of all persons who died were under 
the age of five years. This latter probably does not in- 
clude a number of other deaths of children which were 
not reported. 

The morbidity rate was also very high. There is 
an average of seventeen per cent sick population, six 
per cent with fever, five per cent with diarrhea, and 
six per cent with some other illness. 2 

In regard to the extent of the work of this Depart- 
ment the reader is particularly referred to Appendix VII-3 

1 Vide supra P. 6 

2 Vide Appendices VII -12, 13 



HYGIENE AND SANITATION 151 

which shows that 344,823 people were given medical re- 
lief and 2,157,872 people were immunized against infec- 
tious diseases. For all this work which is enumerated 
in the following pages, the cost to the Commission 
amounted to less than Mex. $600,000. 1 That this figure 
was not much higher was due to three reasons, (1) the 
free gifts of drugs and supplies from friendly govern- 
ments and private organizations and firms, (2) the 
gratuitous services of the large majority of workers and 
(3) the strictest economy exercised throughout by 
every branch of the Department. 

A considerable quantity of supplies, equipment and 
drugs was left over after the work of the Department 
was finished. All was given to the Central Field Health 
Station which is even now continuing some of the work 
undertaken by the Department. 

Pursuant to the decision to set up a Department of organization 
Hygiene and Sanitation in the Commission, Dr. J. Heng 
Liu, Director of the National Health Administration and 
of the Central Field Health Station, was appointed as 
the Department's Director and Dr. P. Z. King, Senior 
Technical Expert of the National Health Administra- 
tion, as Assistant Director. 

Realizing the gigantic task facing the Department, 
on the recommendation of the Director, the Commission 
appointed an Advisory Committee 2 to work out a 

1 Vide Appendix VII 1 

2 The Advisory Committee consists of Doctors B. Borcic, Brian R. Dyer, 
John B. Grant, S. Kanai, P. Z. King, J. Heng Liu, J. L. Maxwell, W. S. 
New, H. J. Shu, L. W. Skinner, Wu Lien-teh, and F. C. Yen 



152 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

plan of organization. Three sub-committees on Per- 
sonnel, Supplies and Training were organized. The De- 
partment, as finally organized, consisted of four 
Divisions: (1) General Affairs, (2) Sanitation, (3) 
Epidemic Prevention, and (4) Medical Relief. 

Field health work was carried out by field units and 
travelling clinics which were organized and set in 
operation in the following sections: 

1. Wuhan Section (under the direction of the Wuhan 

Branch Office, and the travelling clinics for Labor 
Relief Districts Nos. 5, 6, 7, 8, and 10) : 

Covering Hankow, Hanyang, Wuchang, Heishan, 
Nikow, Fankow, Chinsan, Yuinmeng, Chinkow, 
Hsinti, Huangpu, Huangkang, Chingsan, Tuan- 
feng, Shihtsu, Huangchow, Tsaitien, Yanghsin, 
Kienli, Wusueh, Ichang in Hupeh and Changsha, 
Yochow, Yiyang, Changteh in Hunan Province. 

2. North Kiangsu Section (under the direction of the 

North Kiangsu Field Unit and of the travelling 
clinics for Labor Relief Districts Nos. 14, 15, 16, 
and 17) : 

Covering Taichow, Tungtai, Hsinhua, Yencheng, 
Kaoyu, Paoying, Funing, Jukao, Kiangtu. 

3. Nanking Section (under the direction of the Nanking 

Field Unit and of the Travelling Clinic for Labor 
Relief District No. 1) : 

Covering Nanking, Pukow, Chinkiang, Kaotsu, 
Lungtan, Hsiatsu, Kiangin, Hungchiao. 




2i. at Kwei Yuen camp. 




22. Vaccination against smallpox at tieisnan. 




23. 




24. Third Emergency Hospital, Wuchang; inside view. 



HYGIENE AND SANITATION 168 

4. Wuhu Section (under the direction of the Wuhu 

Field Unit, and of the Travelling Clinics for Labor 
Relief District No. 2) : 

Covering Wuhu, Chaohsien, Fanchang, Tungling, 
Wuwei, Tangtu, Wuhsien. 

5. Kiukiang Section (under the direction of the Kiu- 

kiang Field Unit and of the Travelling Clinics for 
Labor Relief District No. 4) : 

Covering Kiukiang, Teh-an, Yunghsiu, Hsinchien, 
Tuanyao, Nanchang. 

6. Shanghai Section (under the direction of the 

Shanghai Field Unit) : 

Covering Shanghai, where a large number of re- 
fugees from the Yangtze Valley and Northern 
Kiangsu were concentrated. 

7. Anking Section (under the direction of the Travel- 

ling Clinic for Labor Relief District No. 3) : 

Covering Anking, Chungyang, Weiyang, Fuhsing. 

8. North Anhwei Section (under the direction of the 

Travelling Clinics for Labor Relief Districts Nos. 
11, 12, and 13) : 

Covering Pengpu, Hwaiyuan, Wuhu, Chengyang, 
Shouhsien. 

These field units, which were in operation until the 
end of March 1932, had at their disposal two quaran- 
tine services, eight sub-field units, nineteen hospitals, 



154 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

twenty-one clinics, twenty-one travelling clinics, seven- 
teen inoculation teams, and ten sanitation teams. 
With the closing of the refugee camps and the organiza- 
tion of labour relief units at the beginning of 1932 the 
different field units were accordingly re-organized, and 
their work carried on by travelling clinics which were 
set up for the Labour Relief Districts according to the 
size of the Districts and the number of dyke workers 
to be served. 1 

Personnel With the exception of a few employees in the Cen- 

tral Office, the personnel of the Department was largely 
technical and worked in the field. All available persons 
from the National Health Administration of the Ministry 
of Interior, of the Central Field Health Station under 
the National Economic Council, of the Surgeon-General's 
Office, and of the Central Hospital were mobilized. 
Additional personnel was obtained through advertising 
in the newspapers and through appeals to medical 
organizations and hospitals. As the number was still 
insufficient, after all these efforts, a petition was sent 
to the Executive Yuan, and at the end of September 
1931 the latter ordered the mobilization of all available 
personnel attached to medical schools, and if necessary 
of all students, who had completed their second year 
course. By these means the members made available 
amounted within a very short time to the following 
figures: 

Doctors 130 

Medical students 16 

1 Vide Appendix VII 2 for outline of organization 



HYGIENE AND SANITATION 155 

Pharmacists and dispensers 15 

Sanitary engineers 4 

Sanitary inspectors 86 

Nurses 210 

Midwives 2 

Laboratory technicians 3 

Office personnel 30 

From the very beginning the Department had the 
sympathy and co-operation of various medical schools, 
mission hospitals, foreign governments and international 
organizations, and as far as personnel was concerned 
wishes to record here particularly valuable assistance 
given by the following: 

The League of Nations Health Organization for the 
services of its Director Dr. L. Rajchman and of its 
experts, Drs. B. Borcic, C. L. Park, M. Ciuca and 
T\ F. Huang; 

The Rockefeller Foundation International Health 

Division for the services of its representative in 
China, Dr. John B. Grant ; and expert, Mr. Brian R. 
Dyer; 

The Spanish Government for the services of Dr. Al- 
berto Anguera, fumigation expert ; 

The Egyptian Government for the services of Dr. H. M. 
Ibrahim, bacteriologist, and two assistants; 

The Netherlands Indian Government for the services 
of Drs. Sie Boen Lian, Tan Kim Hong and Njo 
TiongTjiat; 



156 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

The International Flood Relief Committee of Shanghai, 
which assisted in the medical work in Hankow by 
means of a hospital ship equipped with staff and a 
laboratory contributed by the Lester Institute ; 

Medical schools, especially the Central University Col- 
lege of Medicine and the Peiping Union Medical 
College ; 

Members of missions and mission hospitals in the flood 
areas. 

1. Purchases. 

Drills, Medical When work of the Department was first started, a 

Equipment list was made of those drugs, medical supplies and equip- 

ment which were immediately required, and orders were 
placed with firms within the country as well as abroad. 
Arrangements were also made with hospitals and other 
organizations for the temporary loan of some of the 
supplies and equipment. With the exception of certain 
donations, all sera and vaccines were ordered from the 
National Epidemic Prevention Bureau of the National 
Health Administration and from the Hygienic Laboratory 
of the Public Health Department of the Municipality of 
Shanghai. 

2. The Central Pharmacy Stores. 

For the sake of economy and expediency, a Central 
Pharmacy Store was established at the Central Office. 
Drugs, medical supplies and equipment purchased were 
kept in stock here and distributed to various field units 



HYGIENE AND SANITATION 157 

and travelling clinics. A staff of pharmacists prepared 
drugs for the first-aid boxes and different kinds of tablets, 
tinctures, ampoules and ointmtnts which were most com- 
monly needed. 

3. Donations. 

The following drugs and medical supplies received 
from various sources were placed at the disposal of the 
Department : 

1. By the Belgian Red Cross Society 1,000 g. emetin 
chlorhydrate, and 19 rolls of blankets; 

2. By the Czecho-Slovakian Government 45,300 cc. 
tetanus anti-toxin; 

3. By the Danish State Serum Institute 253,000 cc. 
anti-cholera-typhoid vaccine ; 

4. By the Dutch Government 1,004.4 kilos, quinine 
tablets, and 6,720 cc. anti-plague vaccine; 

5. By the Egyptian Government a mobile bacteriolo- 
gical laboratory, 500,000 doses of smallpox 
vaccine, and 100,000 doses of anti-cholera vaccine ; 

6. By the Government of French Indo-China 100,000 
cc. anti-dysentery serum, and 40,000 cc. anti- 
plague serum ; 

7. By the German Government various drugs and 
chemicals contributed by certain German firms ; 

8. By the Italian Government aspirin, camphor oil 
and other medical supplies ; 



158 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

9. By the Government of the Netherlands East Indies 
100,000 cc. anti-cholera-typhoid-dysentery vac- 
cine, 10,000 doses of smallpox vaccination, and 
instruments for smallpox vaccination ; 

10. By the Norwegian Government 1 ton cod-liver 
oil; 

11. By the Polish Government and its State Institute of 
Hygiene 40,000 doses of anti-dysentery vaccine, 
and 2,000 bottles of anti-meningococcus serum ; 

12. By the Roumanian Government 1,000 ampoules 
anti-rneningococcus serum ; 

13. By the Spanish Government two fumigation 
machines ; 

14. By the Swiss Government 12 kg. Yatren, milk, 
and other medical supplies; 

15. By private contributions through the League of 
Nations 255 for the purchase of medical sup- 
plies. 

Assistance was also received from the American Red 
Cross Society, Overseas Chinese and Mr. Ling Sheng Ti 
in the Netherlands East Indies, Women's Foreign Mis- 
sionary Society, Peiping, the National Epidemic Preven- 
tion Bureau, and private firms such as the Colgate-Palm- 
olive-Peet Company, the Cadbury Bros,, Ltd., Allen & 
Hanburys Company, Ltd., Schmidt & Co., International 
Dispensary, American Drug Company, China Export 
Import & Bank Co., Carlowitz & Co., Tienyuan Chemical 
Works, Standard Drug Co., etc. all of whom made 



HYGIENE AND SANITATION 159 

valuable contributions in the form of bleaching powder, 
quinine, soap, milk and other medical supplies. 

A. Wuhan Section. 

Under the direction of the Wuhan Branch Office and Field 
Travelling Clinics for Engineering and Labour Relief Districts Work 
Nos. 5, 6, 7, 8, and 10. 

At the beginning of the flood the terrible insanitary 
conditions in the crowded refugee camps were strikingly 
obvious. It was apparent that unless the sanitation was 
quickly improved and adequate measures were taken in 
regard to epidemic prevention the refugees would have 
nothing to look forward to except sickness and death, no 
matter how well they might be fed. In the three cities of 
Hankow, Wuchang and Hanyang there were at that time 
more than one hundred thousand refugees living in sixty 
camps. 

A Branch Office of the Department was immediately 
established (August 1931) and it was here that the most 
difficult and concentrated work in sanitation, epidemic 
control and medical relief was carried out. 

1. Medical Relief. 

Eight emergency hospitals with a total of 750 beds 
were established in Hankow, Wuchang, Hanyang and 
Heishan; namely one hospital of 150 beds at Hankow, 
four hospitals with a total of 350 beds at Wuchang, one 
hospital of 50 beds at Hanyang, and two hospitals of 
200 beds at Heishan (Black Hill). For this purpose the 
Wuhan Branch Office had at its disposal 52 doctors and 
113 nurses. 



160 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

The lack of adequate buildings for emergency hos- 
pitals rendered it necessary for the Department to 
build mat-sheds in the neighborhood of refugee camps 
for this purpose. These could be put up in a very short 
time at small expense and proved to be quite adequate to 
meet the emergency. 

In addition to these hospitals seven clinics were es- 
tablished one at Hankow, four at Wuchang and two at 
Heishan. 

A well equipped bacteriological laboratory was es- 
tablished at Wuchang, while several mission hospitals 
in the area also placed their laboratories at the disposal 
of the Wuhan Branch Office. 

Other cities under the direct charge of this Office 
(Huangchow, Hsinti, Yuinmeng, Nikow, Huangpei, 
Huangkang and Ichang) and the cities of Changteh, 
Hanshou, Wanhsiang, Nanhsien, and Anhsiang in Hu- 
nan Province were served by travelling clinics, each of 
which was composed of a doctor and several nurses or 
assistants. The number of these clinics varied accord- 
ing to the needs, and at one time reached thirteen. 

2. Epidemic Prevention. 

The work of this division was almost entirely limit- 
ed to vaccination against smallpox and immunization 
against cholera and typhoid fever. Other preventive 
measures were in the hands of the other divisions, viz., 
isolation under Medical Relief, disinfection and fumiga- 
tion under Sanitation, etc. 



HYGIENE AND SANITATION 161 

Extensive vaccination and inoculation campaigns 
against smallpox, typhoid fever and cholera were carried 
out. Teams of workers visited the refugee camps and 
protective measures were applied universally. Very 
little resistance was encountered, but occasionally a 
certain amount of pressure was necessary. In some camps 
arrangements were made so that the refugees were not 
fed until they had submitted to immunization. In all 
hospitals and clinics, facilities and materials were sup- 
plied for large scale immunization work. Teams also 
worked on the streets to immunize the pedestrians, and 
others made systematic house-to-house visits. Later on 
the travelling clinics gave inoculations to the dyke- 
workers when the construction work began. 

It was through all these methods that the number 
of those vaccinated and inoculated reached such a high 
figure. 

3. Sanitation. 

This division had a variety of duties, which included 
general sanitation of all refugee camps, disposal of f eces, 
refuse, garbage and dead bodies, general disinfection, 
anti-fly work, and provision of safe drinking water. 

At the beginning of the work, sixty students of the 
Provincial Police School in Wuchang were given 
a course of training as sanitary inspectors. Gangs of 
sanitary coolies taken from among the refugees were 
then organized. These men were directed to look after 
the general cleanliness of the camps and to prevent the 
accumulation of refuse and garbage. For the ultimate 



162 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

disposal of garbage and refuse 1,657 garbage trenches 
were dug and 34 incinerators built. 1 

The burial of the dead presented a serious problem 
when most of the land was still flooded. Nearly 14,000 
bodies in various stages of decomposition had to be dis- 
infected, transported and buried by specially organized 
crews. For a time it was seriously considered to sink the 
bodies in the Yangtze River, so great were the difficul- 
ties in finding sufficient dry ground and means of trans- 
portation, but on account of objections from various 
sources this method was never adopted. 

It was necessary from the very beginning to provide 
properly constructed latrines and facilities to prevent 
the breeding of flies. The number of latrines constructed 
in the three Wuhan cities was 1,075. For disinfection 
of the latrines and the prevention of flybreeding bleach- 
ing powder used liberally was found to be the most 
effective agent. 

The problem of supplying safe drinking water to 
the refugees was acute in view of the prevalence of gas- 
tro-intestinal diseases. Refugee labour was used to carry 
water from wells and rivers, which was stored in water- 
kangs and treated with alum and chloride of lime. The 
water was then tested with orthotolidine so that the 
amount of reslvlual chlorine did not exceed two-tenths 
part per million. In this way the refugees were provid- 
ed with water which was safe to drink without boiling. 



1 Vide Appendix VII 7 



HYGIENE AND SANITATION 163 

In some camps, particularly those at Hungshan, 
there was no water to be had in the neighborhood. A 
number of tube-wells were driven and simple pumps 
attached to them. 

For the prevention of typhus fever considerable 
work in the delousing of clothing was done, particularly 
during the winter months. 

A quarantine service was established in Hankow to 
prevent sickness on the steamers which were always 
overloaded with refugees leaving the city. Quarantine 
officers boarded all steamers and in addition to their 
duties of inspection inoculated over 12,000 passengers 
against cholera and typhoid. 

4, Travelling Clinics. 

As the flood receded and the number of camp- 
refugees gradually decreased, the work in the cities was 
cut down and in January and February 1932 the unit 
was re-organized into travelling clinics for Labor Relief 
districts Nos. 5, 6, 7, and 8. These travelling clinics 
were responsible for the medical care of dyke workers 
and their families, epidemic prevention and sanitation 
in the Labour Relief Districts. Four travelling clinics 
were sent to District No. 5 (extending from Wusueh to 
Hanyang) one to Chingsan, one to Tuanfeng, one to 
Shihtsu and Wuchang, and the fourth to Huangchow; 
one travelling clinic to District No. 6 (extending from 
Chinkow to Chenglingchi ; one travelling clinic to Dis- 
trict No. 7 (Kienli) ; one travelling clinic to District No. 
8 (Tsaitien). Each of these travelling clinics was staffed 



164 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

with one or two doctors, 2 or 3 nurses, and 1 to 4 sanitary 
inspectors. Two other travelling clinics were sent to 
Changsha and the adjoining districts (Labour Relief 
District No. 10). 

The number of patients treated by the travelling 
clinics in the Wuhan Section were as follows: 

District No. 5 48,428 

District No. 6 6,394 

District No. 7 4,166 

District No. 8 30,353 

District No. 10 38,339 

From the middle of May, an anti-cholera campaign 
was started with the three cities of Hankow, Hanyang 
and Wuchang as centers. Preventive inoculations were 
given by all the travelling clinics and the co-operation of 
other hospitals was obtained in giving inoculations with 
vaccines supplied by the Wuhan Branch Office. Assist- 
ance was given to districts in the two provinces of Hunan 
and Hupeh in the organization of their own anti-cholera 
committees. Two special cholera hospitals were estab- 
lished in Wuchang and Hankow, and one isolation 
quarters at Hanyang. A large number, chiefly from the 
labouring class, responded to the offer of free inocula- 
tion. Food control, investigations into cases and deaths, 
and disinfection of patients' quarters were simultaneous- 
ly undertaken. (See Page 176 below). 

B. North Kiangsu Section* 

Under the direction of the North Kiangsu Field Unit and 
Travelling Clinics for Engineering and Labour Relief Districts 
Nos. 14, 15, 16 and 17. 



HYGIENE AND SANITATION 165 

This unit was established on September 25, 1931. 
Owing to the large number of small groups of refugees 
scattered over a vast area, the work here was most 
difficult. To facilitate the task, eight sub-stations each 
headed by one or two doctors, one nurse and one clerk 
were established in the cities of Kaoyu, Paoying, Hsin- 
hua, Tungtai, Funing, Yencheng, Yangchow and Jukao. 
The work, which was in general of the same nature as 
that done by the Wuhan Field Unit, may be briefly 
summarized as follows. 

1. Medical Relief 

Five emergency hospitals were established the 
first of 50 beds at Taichow, No. 2 of 35 beds at Tungtai, 
No. 3 of 25 beds at Yencheng, No. 4 of 20 beds at Jukao, 
and No. 5 of 20 beds at Yangchow. In addition, travelling 
clinics were sent to seventeen outlying districts, namely, 
Chinkiang, Hai-an, Chutang, Chiangyen, Liuchuang, 
Fanshui, Nantung, Paichu, Taiyao, Anyi, Hsuyang- 
chuang, Hsuchiachuang, Chupuhsiang, Tachowchuang, 
Chungpaochuang, Hsipaochuang and Hsintung. Up to 
the end of December 1931 the number of patients treated 
at the clinics reached a total of 29,766, while the number 
of in-patients treated at the emergency hospitals was 
368. 1 

2. Epidemic Prevention 

With the exception of dysentery, no serious epi- 
demics appeared in this section, but for the purpose of 
preventing possible outbreaks, extensive inoculation 

i Vide Appendix VII-4 



166 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

campaigns were undertaken. Due to the ignorance of 
the general population, much propaganda work was 
necessary. Altogether 44,881 inoculations against 
typhoid and cholera were given. An effort was made 
to correct the mistaken impression that vaccination 
against smallpox was necessary only in the spring. Dur- 
ing the period ending March 31, 1932, 29,238 vaccina- 
tions were performed. 

3. Sanitation 

In addition to the sanitary inspectors under the 
employ of the unit, members of the police force were 
given special training to help in the work of sanitation. 
Refugee labour was also utilized. 7,660 wells, 8,231 
latrines and 484 corpses were disinfected. Garbage was 
removed to the amount of 39,032 cwts. 

To supplement the nutrition of the poorly nourished 
refugees and children, cocoa and soybean milk were 
freely distributed for a long period. Vitamin B was 
given in those cases where it was specially indicated. 

4. Travelling Clinics for Labour Relief Districts Nos. 14, 15, 
16, and 17 

When the dyke work began in February 1932, the 
unit was reorganized into six travelling clinics, each 
under the charge of one doctor, one nurse and one sani- 
tary inspector. The districts covered were Taichow, 
Tungtai, Kaoyu, Paoying, Yangchow, Hwaiying, and 
Yencheng. 

Much difficulty was experienced in inducing all the 
dyke-labourers to take preventive inoculations against 
cholera and typhoid, on account of the reaction which 



HYGIENE AND SANITATION 167 

in some cases prevented the men from working for a 
day or two. 

In May over sixty cases of typhus occurred in Tai- 
chow. Isolation of the patients and debusing measures 
were quickly instituted, and the disease was under con- 
trol before it assumed more serious proportions. 

A total of 11,854 patients received treatment at the 
travelling clinics. 1 

The work was considerably augmented in May when 
an anti-cholera campaign was undertaken. The doctors 
in the local districts co-operated heartily in this cam- 
paign. In addition to patients treated at the two special- 
ly organized cholera hospitals at Taichow and Yencheng 
and the ten isolation quarters, the work extended to 212 
adjoining villages. (See Page 176.) 

Realizing the fact that the wide prevalence of small- 
pox was due to the scarcity of local personnel able to 
vaccinate, training courses for vaccinators were given 
with the co-operation of local organizations and a total 
of 221 graduated from these courses. For the promo- 
tion of maternity and infant welfare, a training course 
for midwives was also given in Taichow and Hsinhua 
with the co-operation of the local authorities. Three 
classes totalling 31 graduated at Taichow and three 
totalling 55 at Hsinhua. 

C* Nanking Section* 

Under the direction of the Nanking Field Unit and the 
Travelling Clinic for Engineering and Labour Relief District 
No. 1. 
~Vide Appendix VII 5 



168 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

The Nanking Field Unit was established on Septem- 
ber 29, 1931 under the Commissioner of Public Health 
of the Municipality of Nanking. It was esti- 
mated that over 36,000 refugees were concentrated in 
Hsiakwan, Pukow, Hanhsimen and Shuihsimen, mostly 
of the labouring class. A temporary hospital, three 
travelling clinics and five travelling isolation teams were 
organized. 

1. Medical Relief 

An emergency hospital of 40 beds was established 
at Mukwafushan and three branch clinics set up at Hung- 
taikong, Pukow and Shuihsimen. In addition there were 
three travelling clinics. The patients treated suffered 
mostly from malaria and gastro-intestinal diseases. The 
number of patients treated was 17,188. 

Five travelling inoculation teams, each of which was 
assigned to a section of the city, made their daily visits 
to the refugee camps. In order to prevent the outbreak 
of cholera and typhoid, house-to-house inoculations 
were given with mixed cholera and typhoid vaccines. 
The number of these inoculations, including those given 
by the Quarantine Service, reached a total of 42,641. 

2. Epidemic Prevention 

A temporary Quarantine Service was established to 
inspect all steamers at the wharf and to give preventive 
inoculations to passengers. 

Cholera broke out in late October 1931 among the 
new arrivals at the Hungtaikong camp at Hsiakwan. 
Through control measures immediately applied, it was 



HYGIENE AND SANITATION 169 

possible to check the disease before it spread to any 
considerable extent. Only 36 cases occurred. In May, 
1932 however the disease re-appeared in the city. An 
extensive anti-cholera campaign was immediately or- 
ganized. Of the population in the city 22 per cent 
received free preventive inoculations, and hospitaliza- 
tion was extended to all cholera patients. (See Page 
176.) 

Smallpox vaccinations to the number of 18,628 
were given. 

In December, measles broke out in the Hungtaikong 
camp and spread quickly among the refugee children. 
Due to the ignorance of the refugees much difficulty was 
encountered in isolating the cases through hospitaliza- 
tion. This epidemic resulted in 1,491 cases and 682 
deaths. Most of the deaths were due to broncho-pneu- 
monia, which was a frequent complication. 

3. Sanitation 

The proper disposal of night soil, garbage, sewage 
and the provision of chlorinated drinking water for the 
refugees were faithfully carried out under the supervi- 
sion of a sanitary engineer and a group of sanitary 
inspectors. Three water containers were provided for 
each camp, requiring some 1,440 cwts. of water every 
day. 

4. Travelling Clinic 

The travelling clinic for Labour Relief District No. 
1 was organized in February 1932. This took care of 



170 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

the medical and health work in the districts of Chin- 
kiang, Kaotze, Lungtan, Hsiashu, Kiangpu, Kiangnin and 
Hungchiao. The work was started with smallpox vac- 
cination and provision of medical care. In March, upon 
notification of the appearance of cerebro-spinal mening- 
itis, preventive inoculations of meningococcus vaccine 
were given. Sanitation and health education work were 
carried on at the same time. Until the end of April 1932, 
1,850 patients received medical care and 816 persons 
were given preventive inoculations. 

D. Kiukiang Section. 

Under the direction of the Kiukiang Field Unit and the 
Travelling Clinic for Engineering and Labour Relief District 
No. 4. 

The Kiukiang Field Unit, with one emergency hos- 
pital of forty-five beds was established in October 1931. 

1. Medical Relief and Epidemic Prevention 

With the exception of severe cases which must re- 
ceive hospital care, minor ailments were treated by 
travelling clinics, which made daily visits to the refugee 
camps and quarters. A branch clinic was established 
in Shohkianglou. Until the end of March 1932, 8,772 
cases were treated by the travelling clinics and the em- 
ergency hospital. The number of people who received 
anti-cholera inoculations was 4,279 and smallpox vacci- 
nations, 5,919. 



HYGIENE AND SANITATION 171 

2. Sanitation 

With regard to sanitation, 34 latrines, 56 cesspools, 
2 incinerators, and 37 garbage trenches were constructed. 

3. Travelling Clinics 

In April the emergency hospital was closed and 
two travelling clinics were established to take care of 
the health and medical work in this District. Travelling 
Clinic No. 1 was responsible for Chuchiachuen, Hsuchia- 
wan, Kwanhukiang, Hsichihkow, Teh-an, Yunghsiu, 
Chinghsien, Nanchang, Hsinchien, and Travelling Clinic 
No. 2 for Chenchiajung, Tuanyao, Laochowtou. 20 522 
patients were treated by the two travelling clinics. 

E. Wuhu Section. 

Under the direction of the Wuhu Field Unit and the 
Travelling Clinic for Engineering and Labour Relief District 
No. 2. 

There was in Wuhu Section a concentration of more 
than 10,000 refugees. 

1. Medical Relief 

Besides the provision of facilities at the Wuhu Gen- 
eral Hospital, two emergency hospitals and five clinics 
were established. To the end of March 1932 when the 
work of the unit was terminated, 6,250 patients had been 
treated. Gastro-intestinal diseases were the most pre- 
valent. 

1 Vide Appendix VII 5 



172 NATIONAL FLOOD BELIEF COMMISSION 

2. Epidemic Prevention 

Ten inoculation teams were organized for giving 
preventive inoculations against cholera and typhoid. 
No serious epidemics occurred in this section. 

3. Sanitation 

Policemen were trained as sanitary inspectors. 
These with the assistance of a team of fifty workers, took 
charge of the sanitary work in the camps. Cholera ap- 
peared in the Ichisan Camp, but due to the application 
of control measures and the provision of boiled drinking 
water, the disease was immediately checked. 

4. Travelling Clinic 

In February 1932, the travelling clinic was organized 
with Wuhu as the center. This clinic was staffed with 
two doctors and one nurse. It undertook medical care, 
smallpox vaccination and preventive inoculations, and 
health education in the districts of Wuhu, Fanchang, 
Tungling, Wuwei, Tangtu and Wuhsien. Medical care 
was given to sick labourers at the time of the visits, and 
first-aid boxes were left with the chiefs of labour relief 
units, for ready use during the intervals. Simultaneous- 
ly, medical care was given to the refugee camps which 
were still in operation. Patients to the number of 
11,386 were treated by the travelling clinics and 24,678 
persons received smallpox vaccinations and inoculations 
against cholera. A total of 4,420 persons attended 71 
lectures. 

The travelling clinic was closed in the middle of 
July 1932, and was succeeded by the Anti-Cholera Cam- 
paign, 



HYGIENE AND SANITATION 178 

F. Shanghai Section. 

Under the direction of the Shanghai Field Unit. 

Shanghai was not within the flooded area, but as 
refugees from the provinces of Hupeh, Kiangsi, Anhwei, 
and North Kiangsu fled there in large numbers, the 
municipal government and public organizations sponsor- 
ed the establishment of camps in the city for the relief 
of the refugees* Accordingly camps were made ready 
for the admission of refugees in September 1931. The 
medical and health work was put under the charge of 
the Bureau of Public Health. 

G Anking Section. 

Under the direction of the Travelling Clinic for Engineering 
and Labour Relief District No. 3. 

The Travelling Clinic of this Section commenced 
operations in the middle of February, and had its head- 
quarters at Anking, under one doctor and two nurses. 
A number of visits were made from February 1932 to the 
end of July 1932 to the districts of Haiko, Sanmuchow, 
Wulipao, Tatu, Machiawu, Chungyang, Yuchialou, Shao- 
choukou, Makeng, Kweichiatien, Huayang, Fuhsin, 
Tungliu, Chiyang, Changhokou, Lichiaying, Hsiaolo- 
chou, and Wangchiaoying. The work was, as in other 
Sections, divided into medical relief, epidemic preven- 
tion, environmental sanitation and health education. A 
total of 5,304 patients were treated, 19,136 received pre- 
ventive inoculations, and sanitary improvements were 
undertaken 78 times. 



174 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

In May 1932 when the anti-cholera campaign was 
started, the staff was reinforced by fifteen additional 
doctors and nurses. In Anking, the city was divided into 
five districts of east, west, south, north and wharves. 
Control measures were regularly applied. Vaccines were 
sent for inoculation purposes to such hsiens as Changteh 
and Huaiyuen. Until the end of August 157 cholera 
patients in this section received treatment. There were 
34 deaths. 

H. North Anhwei Section* 

Under the direction of the Travelling Clinics for Engineer- 
ing and Labour Relief Districts Nos. 11, 12 and 13. 

The travelling clinics for North Anhwei Section were 
organized during the first part of February 1932 with 
Pengpu as the center and covering the districts of No. 
11 (in Wuhohsien), No. 12 (in Pengpu and Hwaiyuen) 
and No. 13 (in Chengyang and Shouhsien). There were 
three doctors and three nurses. Work in District No. 12 
was first started following the opening of dyke work in 
that district. In the middle of May 1932 the work was 
a little affected owing to Communist disturbances. Visits 
were made by turn along the Hwai River, and first-aid 
boxes were provided for the labour relief units during the 
intervals. For the period from February to June, 9,056 
persons were given treatment by the travelling clinics 
and 31,916 persons were inoculated. 

Beginning from May 1932, anti-cholera work was 
started under the travelling clinics. The doctors of the 



HYGIENE AND SANITATION 175 

travelling clinics visited Chenyang, Hochiu, Sanhochien, 
Mengcheng, Suhsien, Shouhsien, Linghwai, Kucheng, 
Tungshan, Tangshan, Fengyang, Fengtai and Chuanchiao 
to give instructions on cholera preventive and control 
measures. Demonstrations on the disinfection of wells 
were given in Tungshan, Pengpu et cetera while free 
supplies of vaccines and health propaganda materials 
were sent to the districts of Lingpaohsien, Tingyuan, 
Fuyang. 

A severe epidemic of cholera broke out in May, 1932, Anti-cholera 
in a number of important cities, including Shanghai, ampalgn 
Nanking, Taichow, Anking, Wuhu, Hankow and Ichang, 
which made it imperative to cancel the original plan of 
closing the work of the Department of Hygiene and 
Sanitation at the end of June 1932. The De- 
partment was immediately reorganized so as to be 
able to carry on the anti-epidemic work throughout the 
summer. The epidemic eventually proved to be one of 
the worst cholera outbreaks in China, spreading over 
three hundred cities in twenty provinces, and resulting in 
over thirty thousand deaths. There were altogether over 
one hundred thousand reported cases throughout the 
country. 1 

Realizing the seriousness of the situation, the travel- 
ling clinics were at once instructed to undertake sanitary 
work and preventive measures against cholera on a 
vigorous scale, and official visits to the epidemic areas 
were made to investigate the situation and to give advice 

i Vide Appendix VII 8 



176 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

on control measures. The work may be summarized as 
follows: 

A. Education and Propaganda 

In early summer, instructions on the prevention of 
cholera, and samples of pamphlets, posters and handbills 
were sent to the Commissioners of Civil Affairs of all 
provinces through the Ministry of Interior with the 
order to reprint and distribute such materials in all cities 
and hsiens. 

Large numbers of posters and pamphlets on cholera 
were also sent to the travelling clinics for free distribu- 
tion, as well as to all hospitals and health organizations 
which requested them. The following numbers were dis- 
tributed : 

Posters : 

Do Not Drink Unboiled Water 22,000 

The Fly 11,000 

Come to Take Preventive Inoculations 22,000 

Handbills : 

Come to Take Preventive Inoculations 40,000 

Cholera, Typhoid and Dysentery 40,000 

Pamphlet: 

The Prevention of Summer Communicable 

Diseases 10,000 

One hundred thousand additional copies of these 
publications were reprinted for distribution by the Wu- 
han, North Kiangsu and other field units. 



HYGIENE AND SANITATION 177 

In Nanking, an aeroplane assisted in the distribution 
of anti-cholera handbills, which numbered 130,000. 
Popular lectures on cholera were given by the inoculation 
teams. 

In Wuhu, a propaganda parade was undertaken in 
which students and policemen participated. 

In Taichow, besides the utilization of posters, hand- 
bills, and pamphlets, a motion picture show on the pre- 
vention of cholera was given for propaganda purposes. 

B. Mass Inoculations 

Free anti-cholera inoculations were given on an un- 
precedented scale. Besides work undertaken by the 
travelling clinics, anti-cholera campaigns were encourag- 
ed by telegrams to hospitals in the epidemic areas offering 
free supplies of vaccines and propaganda material to all 
organizations which volunteered assistance in the work. 
Twenty-eight hospitals and organizations in different 
places were supplied with 847,940 c.c. of the vaccine free 
of charge. 

The inoculations were undertaken as a rule by 
special teams organized for the purpose in schools, or- 
ganizations and on the main streets. In labour relief 
districts mass inoculations were undertaken by the travel- 
ling clinics. 

The greatest number of inoculations was given in 
the Municipality of Greater Shanghai, which for some 
years had been remarkably successful in such campaigns 
against cholera. Over 660,000 were given by the Bureau 
of Public Health. 



178 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

In Nanking, four special teams were organized to 
give inoculations in schools and organizations, and to 
make house-to-house inoculations each in its assigned 
district. Special attention was given to the population 
living in huts. More than twenty-two per cent of the 
population of the city, namely 136,421 persons were thus 
inoculated. 

In the Wuhan area, thirteen teams were organized 
which gave 287,907 inoculations, representing twenty- 
four per cent of the population. In addition, inocula- 
tion teams were sent to the cities of Changsha, Changteh, 
Yiyang, Paoching, Hengshan and Hengyang to assist the 
local anti-cholera committees in their campaigns. As- 
sistance in the form of vaccine was given to inoculation 
teams in Ichang, Wusueh, Shashih, Hsinti, Yenning, 
Chinkow, and Shaoshih. 

In North Kiangsu, mass inoculations were likewise 
undertaken. Besides the main team in Taichow, eight 
special teams were organized to undertake free inocula- 
tions in the adjoining districts of Kaoyu, Paoying, Tung- 
tai, Kiangtu, Yencheng, Funing, Hsinhua, and Sutsien, 
and 139,487 were inoculated. 

The number of anti-cholera inoculations reported to 
the Department of Hygiene and Sanitation reached a 
total of 1,900,715 as shown in Appendix XII 6. 

In all inoculations one cc. of vaccine containing two 
thousand million cholera vibrio was injected. The reac- 
tion was slight, but only a small number received more 
than one injection. 



HYGIENE AND SANITATION 179 

C. Reporting and Isolation of Cases 

Arrangements were made whereby the police au- 
thorities and members of the labour relief districts 
were to report immediately all suspected cases of cholera 
to the responsible office, or to the travelling clinics and 
inoculation teams. 

In places where the epidemic was serious, special 
cholera hospitals were established for the isolation of 
cases. 

In Nanking, under the auspices of the Anti-Cholera 
Bureau, all cholera cases were sent for free treatment 
at the Central Hospital. Later on two emergency cholera 
hospitals were specially organized. In order to prevent 
the spread of the disease, no patients were allowed to 
leave until their stools proved to be free from cholera 
vibrio. Out of 1,255 cases, of which the Central Hospital 
admitted 1,011, there were 162 deaths, representing a 
case mortality rate of 12.9 per cent. In 333 cases which 
did not receive hospital treatment 211 died, representing 
a case mortality rate of 63.4 per cent. 

Cholera hospitals were established in Hankow and 
Wuchang, and isolation quarters in Hanyang, to which 
952 patients were admitted, with 113 deaths. 

Other cities where special hospitals were organized 
were Taichow, Yencheng, Wuhu and Nanchang. 

Hospitalization of cases was also arranged in co- 
operation with either the local authorities or other local 
agencies in Changsha, Loyang, Chuanchiao, Ankiang, 
Hsuchow, Shanghai, Soochow and Changchow. 



180 NATIONAL FLOOD KELIEF COMMISSION 

The numbers of patients admitted and of deaths 
which occurred in special cholera hospitals are shown in 
Appendix VII 9. 

D. Sanitation 

As all places where cholera appeared, with the 
exception of Shanghai and Hankow, had to rely upon 
either river or well water, disinfection of water was of 
utmost importance in the prevention of the spread of the 
epidemic. Sanitation teams were specially organized in 
Nanking, Hsuchow, Pengpu, Loyang, Shanghai, Kiukiang 
and Nanchang for the purpose of applying systematic 
disinfection of wells and water containers, and 3,440 
wells were systematically disinfected for 86,379 times. 

The method used for the disinfection of wells was 
as follows: 

1 per cent chlorine solution was made from H.T.H. 
or Perchlorion, both high grade hypochlorites. A coolie 
would carry six gallons of the solution, and assist the 
inspector on the disinfection routine. The inspector 
would measure the volume of water in the well, and add 
100 cc. of the chlorine solution to each 100 gallons of 
water in the well, and mix thoroughly with a stick for 
several minutes. After fifteen minutes a sample of the 
chlorinated water would be taken and tested on the spot 
with ortho-tolidine. If a residual chlorine content of not 
less than 15 parts per million was present the inspector 
proceeded to the next well, and continued the work. In 
the case of large camps where water was put into \ang$> 
each fang was disinfected in the same manner. Residual 



HYGIENE AND SANITATION 181 

chlorine test was found necessary, as, after the first few 
days of disinfection, the men were inclined to be careless, 
and either put too little or too much chlorine in the 
water. 

Demonstrations and instructions on the procedure 
of disinfection as well as the amount of disinfectant 
necessary in proportion to the capacity of wells, etc. were 
given in other cities, particularly in Lingpao, Shenchow, 
Mienchih, Chuanchiao, Ankiang, and by all the travelling 
clinics in North Kiangsu. 

The police helped particularly in the control of the 
sale of fruits and cold drinks, and in enforcing the use 
of screens. 

Malaria, which is always an endemic disease, was a survey 
very serious problem during the flood. The Department 
of Hygiene and Sanitation therefore considered it neces- 
sary to make a special effort to investigate its endemicity 
in the various districts, and to take steps towards its 
control. 

The work was entrusted to a special mission headed 
by Prof. M. Ciuca, malariologist, Health Section of the 
League of Nations. 

Beginning from November 1931, visits were made to 
various districts in the provinces of Kiangsu, Chekiang, 
Anhwei, Hupeh and Kiangsi to study the local conditions. 

The investigation to determine the index of infection 
consisted of blood examinations, and the search for en- 
larged spleens. 



182 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

Out of a total of 14,015 persons examined, 436 were 
found to have enlarged spleens. 1 

Blood smears from 711 persons were taken for micro- 
scopic examination. Malaria parasites were found to be 
present in 166 cases. It was found that the highest pro- 
portion of malarial cases occurred in the refugee child- 
ren, 21 per cent of whom had enlarged spleen. Wukong 
in Chekiang was found to be the area of highest endemi- 
city, the percentage of enlarged spleen in this district 
being twenty-three. 

To all cases suffering from enlarged spleen or 
anemia, and those with malaria history, quinine was 
administered. A four-week standard treatment table 
with varying dosage at different intervals was worked 
out through experimentation. Detailed instructions were 
given to the patients for taking the quinine. A large 
quantity of quinine was also supplied to local medical 
organizations for treatment of malarial patients accord- 
ing to the standard table. 

For health education purposes posters and pamphlets 
on the disease were prepared and printed for distribution 
in all districts where malaria was found to be endemic. 

From April to September 1932, a survey was made 
of the most heavily infected parts of Nanking, namely, 
the districts round Ginling College, Chung San Gate, 
Chung San Mausoleum and Tangshan. 

Examination of 7,664 persons for splenic enlargement 
and malaria parasites was carried out. 2 The splenic 

* Vide Appendix VII 10 
2 Vide Appendix VII 11 



HYGIENE AND SANITATION 183 

rate was found to be fourteen per cent, and the parasitic 
rate was ten per cent. The splenic rate for children was 
27 per cent. The district round the Mausoleum was most 
highly infected, 55 per cent of the population having had 
malaria history. P. Falciparum was the predominant 
species, making 56 per cent of the total number. The 
months of August and September had the highest incid- 
ence. 

Beginning in May 1932, a survey was also made of 
the anopheles mosquito in the city and adjoining dis- 
tricts. Only one species, i.e. Anopheles hyrcanus var. 
sinensis, was found. This species was very prevalent 
during the month of July. Ponds, ditches, and slow 
streams with grasses and algae served as their breeding 
places. The natural infective rate was 0.4 per cent. 

This work is being continued by the Department of 
Malariology and Entomology of the Central Field Health 
Station. It is hoped that, based upon results obtained 
through these preliminary surveys, a practical and 
systematic program for the control of the disease may 
soon be worked out. 



w g on inst 



Review of 
Situation 



CHAPTER VIII 

Conclusion 

From the beginning, in August 1931, to the middle of 
June 1932 the Commission was engaged in a strenuous 
race against time; to become organized in time for its 
actual work, to introduce sanitation and medical care 
before the death rate constituted a serious menace, to 
move wheat and flour into position for distribution before 
people actually began to starve, to replace the dykes be- 
fore the spring rise in the river repeated the preceding- 
year's disaster, to strengthen the dykes before the summer 
torrents should breach them. About the middle of June 
1932 it was evident that this race had been won in all 
divisions. The Commission could then pause and take 
stock of its position. 

As has been observed in the foregoing pages, .it was 
the policy of the Commission to close emergency relief 
by the end of March 1932. However, owing to the inten- 
sity of famine conditions, especially in Honan, North 
Anhwei, and North Kiangsu, operations were continued 
until the spring harvest was reaped. By that time the 
field workers were returning to their homes. Funds for 
farm rehabilitation had already been allocated in accor- 
dance with the Commission's programme. In labour re- 
lief the bulk of the dyke work was drawing towards its 
close, except in the 9th District on the Han River, where 
schemes had been in suspense because of the Reds. 
While it is true that work was still in progress in the 
Hwai River Valley and North Kiangsu, it was neverthe- 
less deemed practicable to adopt a policy of winding up 
in stages, in accordance with local conditions. It was 



CONCLUSION 185 

the opinion of those in charge of operations that after 
June 30th the main responsibility of the Commission 
in the field would be the inspection and maintenance of 
the main dykes during the rainy season, and the com- 
pilation of accounts and their audit. These latter, in 
view of the wide extent of the Commission's activities, 
would take a great deal of time, and early commence- 
ment was essential. 

Such being the case a meeting of the Standing Com- standing 
mittee was called, which was held on June 18th. The M^ung? 6 
Committee unanimously decided to call a plenary meet- June 18th> 1932 
ing of the Commission for the consideration of the fol- 
lowing draft resolutions : 

(1) That as from July 1st, 1932, the operations of the 
Commission would be up except in the cases of 
those Departments in which work has been com- 
menced but has not yet been completed. 

(2) That in the case of unfinished work, as soon as 
that work is completed, the Department be 
wound up. 

(3) That the Chairman be empowered to appoint a 
small executive committee from among the 
members of the Commission's staff to supervise 
the liquidation of the affairs of the Commission. 

The second plenary meeting of the Commission was Meeting of the 

x ^ Commission, 

held on June 27th. At this meeting a preliminary report June 2?th. 
covering the various aspects of the Commission's work 
was submitted. In introducing the resolution recom- 
mended by the Standing Committee, the Chairman re- 
marked that as ninety-five per cent of the task had been 



186 



NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 



Liquidation 



(1) Liquidation: 
Emergency 
and Small 
Work Relief 



accomplished, it was unnecessary to maintain the pre- 
sent large organization. He added that provision had 
been made and funds were available for carrying to 
completion the unfinished work, and he felt justified 
therefore in recommending the commencement of regular 
liquidation of the work, so that the Commission could 
hand over to the Government the result of its labours. 
The resolutions were subsequently adopted and the 
Chairman appointed Mr. T. K. Tseng, Dr. W. P. Wei, 
Mr. T. C. Hsi, Mr. J. E. Baker, Mr. L. C. Cha and 
Mr. G. Findlay Andrew as members of an Executive 
Committee charged with the liquidation of the affairs 
of the Commission. 

At the commencement of liquidation, the activities 
of the Commission covered the entire area of operations. 
Funds had been alloted for undertakings which were 
still in progress. Moreover, petitions for funds for new 
enterprises were still streaming in, most of which, though 
not related to flood relief, were nevertheless of a con- 
structive nature. To bring the activities of the Commis- 
sion to a conclusion at an early date it was obviously 
essential that the Commission should make no further 
commitments, and that in the case of undertakings then 
in progress, a time limit should be set for their com- 
pletion. Liquidation could be thus carried out in stages, 
fixed with reference to the position of each undertaking. 
Decisions were taken in accordance with this view. 

At the commencement of liquidation, the Field 
Operations Department had committed itself to a number 
of Small Work Relief measures, notably in Honan and 
Anhwei, which had been commenced late because of 
local conditions. This had been foreseen. When re- 



CONCLUSION 187 

sources were finally made available on the spot, however, 
a good harvest was being reaped and the local commit- 
tees considered it preferable to postpone the work until 
after the rainy season, as for instance in North Anhwei. 
But by the end of the year 1932, except in some un- 
important and isolated cases the responsibilities of the 
Commission were brought to a close, and those small 
labour projects were not carried out. 

Farm rehabilitation work was undertaken, as shown (2 ) Liquidation: 
in Chapter V, mainly through the agency of the China Rehabilitation 
International Famine Relief Commission. The liquida- 
tion of this branch of the Commission's work presented 
peculiar difficulty, in that farm relief was granted in 
the form of loans whose repayment was spread over 
years. Moreover it was intended that this phase of the 
work should continue even after the closure of the Com- 
mission. After careful consideration it was decided to 
transfer to the National Economic Council the respon- 
sibility for the supervision of this work. This was done 
on the winding up of the Field Operations Department. 

The engineering activities of the Commission were (3) Liquidation: 
of two categories, dykes and other engineering works, amf 

Relief 

Though the bulk of the dyke work could have been 
wound up by the end of July, unfinished work on a 
much reduced scale would still be in progress in some 
Districts in August. As the Commission had decided 
not to start any new work, it was necessary to fix a date 
on which to close this phase of the Commission's relief. 
After a careful survey of the work in the field, and allow- 
ing ample time or completion of the programe, it was 



188 NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

decided to bring this phase of the work to a close by 
August 31st. This was carried out. 

The Engineering and Labour Relief Division how- 
ever had undertaken certain engineering projects re- 
quiring considerable time to finish. To this category 
belonged the construction of tidal gates in Kiang Pei 
in the Li Sha Ho area, and the building of sluices and 
culverts on the Hwai River. In view of the time re- 
quired for completion, it was decided to transfer respon- 
sibility for construction to some permanent Government 
department, and thus to enable the Commission to close 
its field work by August 31st. It was therefore decided 
to hand over these projects, together with the responsi- 
bility for the maintenance of the dykes restored by the 
Commission, to the National Economic Council. This 
was done and the transfer was effected as of September 
1st. The tools and implements in the hands of the 
Engineering and Labour Relief Division were also trans- 
ferred to the National Economic Council, as well as 
funds sufficient to complete the work. 

(4) Liquidation: The Department of Hygiene and Sanitation brought 

of Hygiene its work to a close by August 31st 1932, and trans- 

and Sanitation Central Field Health 



Principles 
of Relief 



Station of the National Economic Council. 

Because the destruction was so appalling in amount 
and the numbers in distress were so far beyond the 
resources of private organizations, the National Govern- 
ment undertook this responsibility and, so far as might 
be, also the rehabilitation of the affected areas. The 
National Flood Relief Commission was constituted, and 
at a very early date decided that the most important form 



CONCLUSION 189 

of relief was repair and reconstruction by refugee labour 
of the dykes along the Yangtze and the Hwai Rivers, 
and along the Grand Canal. It was felt that unless these 
dykes were repaired, any attempt at relief from starva- 
tion, or farm rehabilitation, would be futile, since a repe- 
tition of flood conditions would be inevitable in each 
succeeding year. 

The system of dykes along the river banks was Dyking 
not originally constructed according to a modern scienti- System 
fie plan. The dykes were constructed piecemeal, and 
it is quite certain that no question of uniform maximum 
discharge entered into the calculations of the original 
constructors of these dykes. It is obvious, however, that 
the Commission had no option but to reconstruct existing 
dykes, except in those places where their location was 
demonstrably improper. In such places the Commission 
has built its dykes on a realignment, otherwise it has 
been content to accept the old location and to rebuild the 
dykes there. 

The report indicates the enormous scope of the re- scope of 
medial measures undertaken by the Commission. Its Kelief 
work extended in all to 269 hsicns. Free relief ad- 
ministered by the Emergency Relief Division was granted 
to a number just short of five millions. Though detailed 
figures are Inot available, it is certain that at least one 
million were relieved in the camps. Kitchens again 
reached hundreds of thousands. The Commission also 
made advances through the China International Famine 
Relief Commission alone for farm rehabilitation to over 
360,000 farmers each of whom was doubtless head of 
a family. Finally the work under the Engineering and 



190 



NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

Labour Relief Division afforded relief to a maximum 
of 1,400,000 on one day and Small Work Relief certainly 
not to any smaller number. Taking into consideration 
the families supported by labourers on the engineering 
works, large and small, on a conservative estimate, the 
numbers affected by the relief of the Commission must 
have been well in excess of ten millions. 



Relief in 
Kind 



Relief of distress by means of distribution of wheat 
and flour in kind had both advantages and dis- 
advantages. 



(i) Advantages ^ n obvious advantage was the immediate increase 

in the supply of foodstuffs in the distressed area, but 
perhaps the greatest of the advantages lay in the 
influence which the importation of grain and flour into 
distressed areas had upon the price level of grains of all 
kinds in the local markets. One of the immediate re- 
sults of the flood of 1931 was to stimulate speculation 
on a very large scale in grain in all the markets of the 
Yangtze Valley and throughout the flooded area. The 
price of rice for instance, rose with very great rapidity. 
In Hankow it was $15 a picul on July 1st, $16.50 on Sept- 
ember 1st. In Nanking the prices of first quality rice 
were $11.53 and $15 on the same dates. But it was 
found that directly the import of grain and flour com- 
menced the price fell. On November 1st at Han- 
kow it was back at $15 and on December 1st at Nanking, 
$12.70. The effect of this fall in prices was, of course, 
very great for it caused automatic relief to the very large 
class next above the poorest. In fact it largely reduced 
the numbers to whom relief had to be given. 



CONCLUSION 19J 

On the other hand, the disadvantages are many and ^Disadvantages 
are serious. Even in the best cases, with expert manage- 
ment and a trained staff, whenever grain is transported 
from a ship to the shore, or vice versa, or from one ship 
to another ship, loss is inevitable. This has been stated 
by experienced grain importers never to amount to less 
than one per cent at each transfer. In operations such 
as those undertaken by the Commission, in almost every 
case there were three or four transfers, and in many 
cases as many as ten. Thus, in the ordinary course of 
events there was very serious and unavoidable loss. 
Loses of this kind would, of course, not have occurred had 
the relief been distributed in cash, when transfers would 
probably have been effected by cheque. 

A further difficulty in relief on a large scale in kind 
is to be found in the organization required for the dis- 
tribution of the grain and flour. This point does not 
need to be laboured; its truth will be obvious to any 
reader of the report on wheat and its distribution in 
Chapter III. 

There was one grave disadvantage of an entirely 
different kind. Over the major portion of the flooded 
area the population was not wheat eating, but rice eat- 
ing, and it took some time before the people to whom 
wheat and flour were distributed could learn how 
to use them. This difficulty continues until the distressed 
population approaches the starvation point. 

At the commencement of operations, and in many 
cases until their close, those who received wheat and 
flour sold it to the local grain dealer and from him pur- 
chased other grain. A perfectly natural result followed 



192 



NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 



General 
Conclusion as 
to Relief in 
Kind 



Effects of Work: 
(1) Remedial 



from these transactions. The person who wished to get 
rid of the wheat and flour was placed at a disadvantage 
in comparison with the purchaser. It may be accepted 
that, as a general rule, the sale of wheat and flour was 
made, on the average, at least 20 per cent below the price 
at which it was valued for payment of wages, so 
that the amount of relief was in effect reduced by that 
percentage. Later, large numbers took to eating wheat 
and flour, but, as has been mentioned in this Report, it 
was always found necessary to afford a certain portion 
of the relief in cash in order that resources might be 
available for the purchase of salt, vegetables, oil, fuel and 
other necessaries of life. 

Notwithstanding the difficulties and disadvantages 
cited above, there can be little doubt that the importa- 
tion of 445,555 tons of food stuffs into China in the 
winter of 1931-1932 was, on balance, of enormous ad- 
vantage. The consent of the American Government to 
the sale of a portion made things much easier, both for 
the Commission and for the sufferers, than would have 
been the case had the whole of the operations been con- 
fined to relief in kind. The great mass of the wheat 
and flour found its way to the places and people where, 
and by whom, it was most required. 

The effect of the Commission's work has been notice- 
able in three directions. 

In the first place its remedial action was highly suc- 
cessful. Over this great area of 70,000 square miles 
the Commission was successful in saving innumerable 
lives and in mitigating untold cases of suffering. The 



CONCLUSION 193 

provision for Farm Rehabilitation Was inadequate to the 
need but nevertheless had an important bearing on the 
rapidity of recovery of the agricultural population, in 
those areas in which it was carried out. Of course by 
far the most important remedial measure was the repaid 
and reconstruction of the dyked. This was eminently 
successful, as may be judged from the fact that dur- 
ing the rainy season of 1932 not a single instance 
occurred of a breach of a dyke constructed or repaired 
by the Commission. 

Secondly, the colossal effort made by the Com- (2)Economic 
mission which resulted in the reconstruction of the 
whole of the damaged main dykes was responsible for 
what might described a record harvest of rice for the 
1932 season. It is indeed remarkable that, whereas in 
the month of October 1931 the mass of the population 
of the effected area was in desperate straits for food, in 
the month of October 1932 so much rice was available, 
that the common complaint of both former and merch- 
ant was directed to the indequancy of the price of that 
cereal. 

The remedial and the ecorlomic effects of the Com- (3) Political 
mission's work are thus patent. There is, however, a 
less obvious but no less important result of a political 
nature. The evidence of many independent observers 
establishes the fact that the agricultural population of 
the National Government of China is regarded in an 
entirely different manner in consequence of the opera- 
tions of the Commission. There has brought forcibly 
to the notice of the affected population the fact that this 
National Government has been inspired by an interest 



194 



NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 



Accounts 



Recommen- 
dations 



in the well being of the common people, which has been 
translated into vigorous timely and extensive action. 
Further there is evidence that the peasant population 
now regards the Central Government with more inter- 
est and more respect. This tendency is being fortified 
by the operations of the National Economic Council in 
construction of inter-provincial highways with the sur- 
plus funds placed at its disposal by this Commission. 
The construction of these roads is again identified in 
the minds of the peasant population with the Central 
Government. Thus a political result of the first magni- 
tude following the operations of this Commission is by 
no means the least of the results of its labours. 

For the accounting and auditing of expenditures in 
cash and in kind, the Commission established the De- 
partment of Audit and Accounts. Subsequently a 
separate Accounts Division was created. Theoretically, 
the complete organization of these branches should have 
preceded rather than followed the organization of the 
operating forces. However, the demands for relief in 
the field were so insistent that consideration of auditing 
and accounting routine was thrust into the background 
somewhat. As a result, delays in complete rendition 
of accounts have occurred and time is required to dis- 
pose of all of the details. At the time of this report, 
compilations of the final accounts are still in progress, 
but for the information of the public, interim statements 
are included in this report and will be found in Appen- 
dices III and VIII. 

It is natural to consider how this historic and 
monumental effort can secure the most permament 
benefit for the people and Provinces affected. 



CONCLUSION 195 

It is obviously desirable to maintain the dykes at (i) Maintenance 
the standard of efficiency to which they have been ofDykes 
brought by the Commission. Before the flood of 1931 
the duty of maintaining the dykes on the Yangtze River 
fell to Provincial and local authorities. This method 
has not been efficient, and a new authority should be 
constituted to which Provincial representatives might 
be appointed, and whose duty should be in the future 
to administer the funds received from the dyke tax, and 
to secure the maintance of the dykes. The funds avail- 
able will unquestionably be sufficient not only to main- 
tain the dykes in their present state of efficiency, but 
also from time to time to improve the alignment and to 
build new dykes where this may prove necessary. It 
would render possible treatment of the whole of the 
dykes as one system, in place of the piecemeal treat- 
ment of the past. 

A second direction in which action is desirable is (2) Preparation 
in the preparation of a definite survey of those Pro- 
vinces of China which are liable to flood and conse- 
quent famine, and the preparation of plans to meet 
without delay such an emergency as it arises. These 
could be put into operation as opportunity offers and 
funds are available, so that in the future, relief may be 
more easily possible than it has been in the past. 

An example of the effectiveness of the procedure 
here recommended is afforded by a neighboring coun- 
try. In India, fifty years ago, famines were still of fre- 
quent occurrence, but as the result of preventive 
measures initiated by the British Government, famine 
has now practically disappeared. During "fat" years, 



1% NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

the Government prepared plans and estimates for works 
of a famine preventive nature for every precarious 
province. These plans and estimates were kept on file 
until a famine occurred. When the emergency arose, 
they were taken out of the pigeon hole, and work com- 
menced at once without confusion or delay. 

Every decade in China large sums of money, charit- 
able and governmental, are disbursed for relief pur- 
poses. If such funds in the future were concentrated 
upon well devised and well selected public works, dis- 
trict by district, Province by Province, the famine map 
of China would be reduced and within a measurable 
period might vanish altogether. 

^ special importance attaches to the programme 
for the Hwai River Valley. The question of the Hwai 
River and its outlet has been agitated for many years, 
and has been the subject of inquiry by more than one 
expert commission of engineers. Plans for improve- 
ment have been prepared and their execution has been 
entrusted to a Government commission. It must be re- 
membered that the work which has been done by this 
Commission during the past year in this region, though 
resulting in some increased protection from floods, is 
only palliative and in no way guarantees the region 
embraced by the Hwai Valley, to which must be added 
the lower portion of the Grand Canal and the remainder 
of Northern Kiangsu. It is urged, therefore, that the 
scheme already planned be carried early to a successful 
conclusion to the end that further disastrous flooding of 
that fertile area may be prevented. 



APPENDICES 



APPENDIX I 



1. Maximum and Minimum Height of Yangtze River at 

Hankow, 1868 to 1932. 

2. Date of Maximum Heights, Yangtze River, Selected 

Points, Flood of 1931. 

3. Population and Area of Flooded Districts, 



APPENDIX I 1 
Maximum and Minimum Height of Yangtze River at Hankow, 1868 to 1932 



Year 


Maximum 
Height 
Ft. In. 


Minimum 
Height 

Ft. In. 


Year 


Maximum 
Height 
Ft. In. 


Minimum 
Height 

Ft. In. 


Year 


Maximum 
Height 
Ft. In. 


Minimum 
Height 
Ft. In. 


1868 


44 4 





1890 


46 6 


5 


1912 


46 8 


5 10 


1869 


49 


10 6 


1891 


43 


1 6 


1913 


41 


2 4 


1870 


50 6 


2Mj 


1892 


43 2 


1 


1914 


39 5 


1 7 


1871 


43 4 


1 2 


1893 


44 6 


2 8 


1915 


41 7 


3 


1872 


46 3 


4 7 


1894 


43 


1 6 


1916 


38 7 


4 1 


1873 


43 


8 


1895 


41 


3 


1917 


46 1 


6 


1874 


38 2 


3 5 


1896 


46 7 


1 3 


1918 


45 3 





1875 


45 


4 3 


1897 


45 6 


5 9 


1919 


46 


4 10 


1876 


43 9 


1 5 


1898 


40 3 


4 6 


1920 


45 6 


1 


1877 


34 4 


2 


1899 


42 6 


8 


1921 


47 


5 8 


1878 


48 10 


1 6 


1900 


31 8 


3 6 


1922 


47 2 


5 10 


1879 


41 4V 2 


2 9 


1901 


46> 2 


2 3 


1923 


45 5 


7 


1880 


39 7 


7 


1902 


37 6 


9 




Ft. lOths. 


Ft. lOths 


1881 


37 9 





1903 


42 6 


8 


1924 


48 2 


4 1 


1882 


46 2 


7 10 


1904 


37 





1925 


36 1 


3 5 


1883 


45 6 


3 3 


1905 


43 


5 6 


1926 


48 9 


2 9 


1884 


37 


7 1 


1906 


44 6 


11 


1927 


43 9 


5 


1885 


45 6 


10 


1907 


44 3 


1 1 


1928 


37 3 


7 


1886 


41 8 


1 7 


1908 


39 9 


5 


1929 


41 1 





1887 


48 3 


3 9 


1909 


46 5 


3 9 


1930 


43 8 


3 3 


1888 


40 8 


4 


1910 


39 7 


t 11 


1931 


53 G* 


3 4 


1889 


49 6 


9 


1911 


47 8 


5 


1932 


44 2 


6 7 



* Flood Year 



201 



APPENDIX 12 

Date of Maximum Heights, Yangtze River, Selected Points, 

Flood of 1931 



Place 


Maximum Height 


Date 1931 


Chungking 


86.8 ft. 


Aug. 6 


Wanhsien 


128.0 


9 


Ichang 


60.3 


10 


Shasi 


34.9 


9 


Yochow 


51.0 


M 16 


Hankow 


53.6 


M l^ 


Kiukiang 


45.4 


30 


Anking 


43.3 


Sept. 2 


Wuhu 


31.3 


16 


Nanking 


i 25.0 


16 



Slightly tidal 



202 



APPENDIX 13 
Population and Area of Flooded Districts 





Number 


Affected ] 


3 opulation 




Province 


of Flooded 
hsien Studied 


Total 
Farm 
Families 


Persons @ 
Six per 
Family 


Square Miles 
Flooded 


Hunan 


15 


424,200 


2,545,200 


5,525 


Hupeh 


30 


1,022,700 


6,136,200 


12,797 


Kiangsi 


14 


243,300 


1,459,800 


4,705 


S. Anhwei 


24 


613,200 


3,679,200 


5,431 


S. Kiangsu 


11 


224,300 


1,345,800 


2,945 


Honan 


1 


63,600 


381,600 


12,391 


N. Anhwei 


19 


767,000 


4,602,000 


13,210 


N. Kiangsu 


17 


874,100 


5,244,600 


11,236 


Total 


131 


4,232,400 


25,394,400 


68,240 



Authorities : 



The 1931 Hood in China 
Aerial Surveys (last column). 



203 



APPENDIX II 



1. Regulations of the National Flood Relief Commis- 

sion, approved by the National Government of 
China, August 22nd, 1931. 

2. Revised Regulations of the National Flood Relief 

Commission, approved by the National Govern- 
ment of China, November 14th, 1931. 

3. List of Members, National Flood Relief Commission 

and Committees. 

4. Text of Wheat Purchase Agreement. 

5. Regulations Governing the Flood Relief Customs 

Surtax. 



APPENDIX II 1. 

REGULATIONS OF THE NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF 

COMMISSION 

Approved by the National Government of China 
August 22nd, 1931 

I. The National Government hereby creates the National 
Flood Relief Commission, which shall be charged with the relief 
of those suffering from flood conditions and with the rehabilita- 
tion of the flooded areas. 

II. The Commission shall be composed of five members 
who shall be appointed by the National Government, one of 
whom shall be designated as Chairman, together with specially 
qualified persons who shall be invited by the said five members 
to serve as additional members. 

III. The Commission shall organize seven Departments to 
deal with the following functions : information, finance, audit and 
accounts, hygiene and sanitation, field operations, transportation, 
and co-ordination of private relief. Each Department shall be 
headed by a Director. The regulations for the organization of 
each Department shall be drafted separately. 

IV. There shall be a Secretary General and a number 
of secretaries and clerks. The regulations for the organization 
of the Secretariat shall be drafted separately. 

V. There shall be a Standing Committee, which shall be 
composed of the Government members, the Directors of the 
seven Departments, and the Secretary General as ex-offiicio 
members, and such others of the specially invited members as 
are elected to the Committee by the Government members. 

VI. Complete and detailed accounts shall be rendered to 
the Government by the Commission from time to time with 
respect to all its operations and with respect to the work accom- 

207 



plished, and at the termination of the Commission's work a final 
report shall be rendered to the National Government. These 
accounts and the final report shall be published. 

VII. In addition to the distribution of free relief, emphasis 
shall be laid on work and agricultural relief with a view to the 
early rehabilitation of the suffering districts and the prevention 
of recurrence of similar disasters in the future. 

VIII. These regulations shall come into force on the day 
of approval by the Government. 



208 



APPENDIX II 2. 

REVISED REGULATIONS OF THE NATIONAL FLOOD 
RELIEF COMMISSION 

Approved by the National Government of China, 
November 14th 1931 

I. The National Government hereby creates the National 
Flood Relief Commission, which shall be charged with the 
relief of those suffering from flood conditions and with the re- 
habilitation of the flooded areas. 

II. The Commission shall be composed of five members who 
shall be appointed by the National Government, one of whom 
shall be designated as Chairman, together with specially qualified 
persons who shall be invited by the said five members to serve 
as additional members, one of whom shall be designated by the 
Commission as Vice-Chair man. 

III. The Commission shall organize seven Departments to 
deal with the following functions: information, finance, audit 
and accounts, hygiene and sanitation, field operations, transporta- 
tion, and co-ordination of private relief. Each Department 
shall be headed by a Director. The regulations for the organiza- 
tion of each Department shall be drafted separately. 

IV. There shall be a Secretary General and a number of 
secretaries and clerks. The regulations for the organization of 
the Secretariat shall be drafted separately. 

V. The Vice-Chairman shall concurrently be Director- 
General, who shall, in the execution of the policies of the Com- 
mission and the Standing Committee, direct all the administrative 
affairs of the Commission. 

VI. There shall be a Standing Committee, which shall be 
composed of the Government members, the Vice-Chairman, the 

209 



Directors of the seven Department members, and the Secretary 
General as ex-officio members, and such others of the specially 
invited members as are elected to the Committee by the Govern- 
ment members. 

VII. Complete and detailed accounts shall be rendered to 
the Government by the Commission from time to time with 
respect to all its operations and with respect to the work ac- 
complished, and at the termination of the Commission's work a 
final report shall be rendered to the National Government. 
These accounts and final report shall be published. 

VIII. In addition to the distribution of free relief, emphasis 
shall b& laid on work and agricultural relief with a view to the 
early rehabilitation of the suffering districts and the prevention 
of recurrence of similar disasters in the future. 

IX. These regulations shall come into force on the day of 
approval by the Government. 



210 



APPENDIX II 3. 

LIST OF MEMBERS 

NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 
AND COMMITTEES 

i. National Flood Relief Commission 
ii. Standing Committee 
iii. Finance Committee 
iv. Audit Committee 
v. Inland Transportation Committee 
vi. Technical Advisory Board of the 

Engineering and Labor Relief Division 
vii. Medical Advisory Committee to the Hygiene and 

Sanitation Department, 
viii. Liquidation Committee 



INSERT 
ix. Co-ordination Committee. 



NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

Appointed by the National Government 
T. V. SOONG, Chairman 



HSU SHIH-YING 
LIU SHUNG-CHING 

Invited by the Government 
BAHNSON, CAPTAIN. J. J. 
BAKER, J. E. 

BASSETT, MAJOR ARTHUR 
BENNETT, C. R. 
BRANDL, E. L. 
BROWN, N. S. 
CALDER-MARSHALL, R. 
CARNEY, J. W. 
CHA, L. C. 
CHANG CHUN 
CHANG Hsu-Wu 
CHANG, MADAME HSURH-LIANG 
CHANG HSUEH-MING 
CHANG KIA-NGAU 
CHANG KUNG-HAN 
CHANG, LOY 
CHANG SHAO-LING 
CHANG, MADAME SHAO-LING 
CHANG SHAO-YUNG 
CHANG SHI 
CHANG, T. B . 
CHATLEY, HERBERT 
CHENG CHAN-PO 
CHEN, JIAN 
CHEN, K. P. 
CHIEN YUNG-MING 
CHIEN TAN 
CHOW TSO-MING 
CHOW YU-CHING 
CHOW TA-WON 
CHOW PAH-PANG 
CHOW, Z. Y. 

CHOW, SIR SHAO-SON, Kt. 
CHU, PERCY 
CHU YING-KIANG 
CHU KWONG-PAO 
CLEVELAND, F. A. 
DEE, C. CHUAN 
DJANG, Y. S. 
DONNE, JEAN 
Doo YUET-SENG 
Doo, MADAME YUET-SENG 
FITCH, GEORGE 
FRENCH, C. H. 
FUNATSU, T. 



H. H. RUNG 
CHU CHING-LAN 

Commissioners 
GEE GEOH-MEE 
HARDOON, MADAME KA-LING 
HOWARD, E. 
Ho YAO-CHU 
HOPKINS, P. S. 
Hou, Y. 
How, BANG 
Hsi, T. C. 

Hsu, MADAME YUH-YING 
HSIUNG HSI-LING 
HSUANG SUE-HOW 
Hu YEOH-YU 

HUBBARD, G. E. 

HUANG, H. L. 
HUNG CHOW-HWANG 
HUNG SHAO-CHUNG 
HWANG, PARKCANB C. 
IKED A, Y. 
JACQUINOT, R. 
KESWICK, JOHN 
Koo CHI-SUN 
KUNG, MADAME H. II. 
KWAN Yu-NuNG 
LAMBERT, HENRI 
LAURENZ, R. 
LEE, C. H. 

Li HSIEH 

Li KWON-YIN 

Li MING 

LIEN SING-HAI 

LIEU, 0. S. 

LIN Yu-Cnu 

LING, K. H. 

LING, ADMIRAL K. K. 

LING SHENG, MADAME- KWANG-YE 

Liu CHING-HWA 

Liu, DR. J. HENG 

Lo PAH HUNG, J. 

LOBENSTINE, E. C. 

Loo CHIEN-CHUAN. 
Loo MING-GEE. 
LOVE, H. H. 

LOW HSIEN-CHING 

LUM, BUM KING, Dr. 
MA LING-YI 



212 



MARSOULIES, Du PAC DE, (late) 

MAXWELL, JAMES L. 

MAZE, SIR FREDERICK W. 

MAZOT, HENRY 

NATHAN, Major W. S. 

NEW, Dr. WAYSUNG 

NG SAY-KIM 

NIEH LU-SAN 

OEI EK-SIOE 

OEI TJOE 

OHMOORA, T. 

OWYANG CHU-TENG 

POWELL, J. B. 

PRATT, F. L. 

PRICE, D. W. M. 

ROSE, ARCHIBALD 

SIMPSON, SIR JOHN HOPE 

STROEBE, COL. G. G. 

SPEELMAN, M. 

STARR, C. V. 

SHENG, MADAME I- YE 

SHENG. MADAME SING-YE 

SHU, C. M. 

Siu NGOU 

SOONG, T. L. 

SOONG HSI-SHANG 

SUN, RUSSELL 

SUNG HAN-CHANG 

SAH, ADMIRAL CHING-BING 

SZE LIANG-ZAI 

TAVELLA, U. 

THACKREY, T. C. 

TAN, L. S. 

TCHBNG, MLLE. S. N. 

TCHENG, MLLE. Sou MI 

TSUR, Y. T. 

TONG, HOLLINGTON K. 
TONG CHUNG-KWOH 



TSAI, ADMIRAL T. K. 

TSENG. T. K. 

Tu CHUN-YUEN 

WANG, MADAME C. H. 

WANG, C. T. 

WANG HSIAO-LAI 

WANG. I. D. 

WANG PAH-CHUN 

WANG, P. F. 

WANG. P. J. 

WANG SIU-CHEN 

WEI, W. P. 

WONG CHI. 

WONG DIEN-CHANG 

WONG KING-YOUNG 

WONG You-NooN 

Woo. C. C. 

Woo. D. T. 

Wu DUH-CHUAN 

Wu LIEN-TEH. DR. 

Wu TEH-CHEN 

Wu TsE-How 

YANG, MADAME CHUNG- Foo 

YANG CHUANG 

YEH KAI-KING 

YEH CHI-PING 

YEH TIEN-SUNG 

YEH YE-KAI 

YEN CHWANG 

YEN. W. W. 

YENESATO, M. 

YIH. F. S. 

YING. MADAME PU-CHUAN 

YOUNG. ARTHUR N. 

YOUNG, COL. P. C. 

YUNG, T. K. 

Yu YA-CHING 

ZING. Z. C. 



INSERT 

"Subsequent to the original organization of 
the Commission, Sir John Hope Simpson was 
appointed vice-Chairman and Director General. 
See Page 19." 



213 



ii 

STANDING COMMITTEE 
Chairman: T. V. SOONG. 

BAHNSON, CAPT. J. J. FUNATSU, T. 

BAKER, J. E. Hsu SHIH-YING 

BENNETT, C. R. KANAI, C. 

CALDER-MARSHALL, R. RUNG, H. H. 

CARNEY, J. W. Liu, DR. J. HENG 

CHANG, LOY Liu SHIANG CHING 

CHANG KIA-NGAU LOBENSTINE, E. C. 

CHANG SHAO-LING MAZOT, H. 

CHANG SHAO-YUNG ' TCHENG, MLLE. SOUMI 

CHU CHING-LAN TSENG, T. K. 

CHUN, CHANG Yu YA-CHING 

iii 

FINANCE COMMITTEE 
Chairman: T. V. SOONG. 

CALDER-MARSHALL, R. MAZOT, H. 

CARNEY, J. W. ROSE, ARCHIBALD 

FUNATSU, T. SHU, C. M. 

CHANG SHAO-YUNG SPEELMAN, M. 

Hou, Y. YUNG, T. K. 

LIEU, O. S. ZING, Z. C. 

Secretary: PERCY CHU. 

iv 
AUDIT COMMITTEE 

Chairman: CHANG KIA-NGAU. 

BENNETT, C. R. Lo PAH HUNG, J. 

CHEN, K. P. ROEHERKE, G. 

HUBBARD, G. E. OHMOORA, T. 

LAURENZ, R. SUNG HAN-CHANG. 

Li MING WATSON, WILLIAM 
LING, K. H. 



INLAND TRANSPORTATION COMMITTEE 

Chairman: Yu YA-CHING 
Vice-chairman: JOHN KESWICK Deputy Vice-Chairman: C. T. TOD 

DEAN, A. V. T. KING, T. K. 

DRAKE, F. D, LAMB, F. R, 

GRANT, A. J. SCHINAZI, L. R. 
HOYT, LANSING 

Secretaries: L. EVERETT, INC. 
214 



vi 

TECHNICAL ADVISORY BOARD OF THE 
ENGINEERING AND LABOUR RELIEF DIVISION 

BAKER, J. E. KAO, T. K. 

CHANG, F. T. KUNG, S. C. 

CHANG, H. L. LEE, S. T. 

CHATLEY, H. Li, H. 

CHEN, C. E. Li, K. Y. 

CHEN, K. M. LIN, C. S. 

CHEN, L. S. SHEN, P. S. 

CHEN, M. C. SHIH, Y. 

CHOW, H. K. STROEBE, COL,. G. G. 

CHOW, Z. Y. SHU, K. 

FONG, T. C. SUN, F. S. 

Hsi, T. C. SUNG, H. S. 

HSUEH, T. P. TAN, C. K. 

Secretary i CHU, Y. 
vii 

MEDICAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE OF THE 
HYGIENE AND SANITATION DEPARTMENT 

Director i DR. J. HENG Liu 

BORCIC, DR. B. KANAI, DR. S. 

DR. Wu LIEN-TEH. MAXWELL, DR J. L. 

DR. NEW WAY-SANG. SHU, DR, H. J. 

DYER, DR. BRIAN, R, SKINNER, DR. L. W. 

GRANT, DR. J. B. YEN, DR. F. C. 

Secretary i DR. P. Z. KING 



LIQUIDATION COMMITTEE 
Chairman-. T. K. TSENG. 

ANDREW, G. FINDLAY. HSI, T. C. 

BAKER, J. E. WEI, W. P. 

CHA, L. C. 



215 



APPENDIX II 4. 

AMERICAN WHEAT LOAN AGREEMENT 
September 25th, 1931. 



I. The Grain Stabilization Corporation with the approval 
of the Federal Farm Board agrees to sell and the National 
Government agrees to buy 450,000 short tons of No. 2 Western 
White Wheat, to be loaded in bulk, F.O.B. United States Pacific 
Coast ports. 

II. The seller reserves the right of furnishing not more 
than one half of the above quantity in the form of flour at a 
comparable price. 

III. Deliveries to the buyer will be made by the seller 
tendering wheat to the United States Pacific Coast ports to be 
determined by the seller and in accordance with the following 
schedule: 90,000 tons during the remainder of September and 
during October; 75,000 tons monthly during November to 
February inclusive; and 60,000 tons during March. 

The date of delivery during the respective months will 
be at the option of the buyer. The buyer will give the seller 
five days' notice before tendering each vessel. 

IV. The price for each shipment will be the current 
market price on the day of issue of ocean bill of lading F.O.B. 
at the port of loading. 

V. The buyer will pay for the wheat and/or flour tendered 
by delivering to the designated agent of the seller obligations 
of the Chinese National Government bearing the same date as 
that of the ocean bills of lading covering each shipment. Such 
obligations shall be payable both as to principal and interest at 
New York in United States gold dollars. The obligations will 
bear interest at the rate of four per cent per annum, payable 
on June 30 and December 31 of each year, and one-third thereof 



216 



shall mature December 31, 1934, one-third thereof shall mature 
December 31, 1935 and one-third thereof shall mature December 
31, 1936. 

VI. The buyer will appoint an agent to deliver to the seller 
temporary signed obligations in respect of shipments made on 
each date. These temporary obligations will be consolidated as 
soon as practicable into three definitive obligations as set forth 
in item V. 

VII. The wheat and the flour, if any, will be used by the 
buyer exclusively for charitable purposes in the flooded areas 
of China. 

VIII. American flag vessels shall be used for the transpor- 
tation of the wheat and/or flour unless vessels of other flags 
are available at port of loading at the time of proposed ship- 
ments in accordance with the schedule set forth in Item III on 
terms more favorable to buyer than the terms offered by Ameri- 
can flag vessels. 

Arrangements for shipping shall be made by the buyer 
through a representative designated by it under open bids or 
other arrangements conducted and completed in a manner 
approved by the American Commercial Attache at Shanghai 
designated to act for the seller. 



217 



APPENDIX II 5. 

REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE FLOOD RELIEF 
CUSTOMS SURTAX 

Promulgated by the National Government of China, 
November 28th 1931. 

I. All import and export duties provided for by the 
Customs import and export tariffs, with the exception of those 
specified in Article III, shall be subject to a Flood Relief 
Surtax. 

II. The rate of the Flood Relief Surtax shall be W% of 
the Customs duty during the period from December 1st 1931 to 
July 31st 1932 inclusive, the entire proceeds from which shall 
be devoted to flood relief purposes; the rate shall be 5% of the 
Customs duty from August 1st 1932 until the date of the 
complete liquidation of the American Wheat Loan, the proceeds 
from which shall be applied to the payment of interest and re- 
payment of capital of the said loan. 

III. Articles listed under the following numbers in the 
Customs import tariff promulgated by the National Government 
on December 29th 1930, shall be exempt from the Surtax : 

1-9; 12; 14-16; 21-23; 25-31; 37; 39; 41; 
43; 44; 46; 51; 59-61; 64; 249 (a) and (b) ; 
250; 252; 255; 256; 262; 265-267; and 305 (a). 

IV. The entire proceeds from the Flood Relief Surtax shall 
be appropriated by the National Flood Relief Commission. 

V. The present Regulations shall become operative upon 
the date of promulgation. 



218 



APPENDIX III 

1. Purchases of Wheat and Flour. 

2. Commissary District Headquarters and Employees. 

3. Original Allocation of Wheat, in Tons, to Provinces 

and Purposes. 

4. Tons of Wheat Allocated for Delivery at Each River 

Port; also, Total Tons Delivered. 

5. Commissary Expense, by Districts. 

6. General Statement of Grain Account, 



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223 



. APPENDIX III 3 

ORIGINAL ALLOCATION OF WHEAT, IN TONS, TO PROVINCES, 

AND PURPOSES 
(As revised March 29, 1932) 



Province 


Emergency 


Farm 
Rehabilitation 


Engineering 


Total 


Original 
Allocation 


Reserve 


Disk 
No. 


Tons 


Allocated 
to Date 


Free 
to Date 


Allocated 


Free 


Kiangsu 


15,000 


3,200 


1,300 


8,470 




1 
14 
17 
16 
15 


9,460 
11,600 
5,805 
3,870 
23,220 


81,925 


Anhwei 


15,000 


5,000 




10-000 




2 
3 
11 
12 
13 


15,480 
15,480 
13,500 
22,500 
22,500 


119,460 


Kiangsi 


10,000 






5,000 




4 
(i) 


7,740 
7,260 


30,000 


Hupeh 


15,000 


5,000 




10,000 




5 

6 

7 
8 
9 


17,415 
19,350 
23,220 
11,610 
15,480 


117,075 


Honan 


10,000 


5,000 








18 


5,805 


20,805 


Hunan 


10,000 






10,000 




10 


30,000 


50,000 


Shantung 














3,000 


3,000 


Total 
Reserve : 


75-000 


18,200 


1,300 
5,500 


43,470 


6,530 




284,295 
15,705 


422,265 
27,735 


Grand 
Total: 


75-000 


18,200 


6,800 


43,470 


6,530 




300,000 


460,000 



Added from Reserve, second allocation. 



226 



APPENDIX III 6 
GENERAL STATEMENT OP GRAIN ACCOUNT 

COMMISSARY DIVISION 
(Short Tons, i.e. 2,000 pounds) 



(l) 

(2) 
(3) 



Particulars 


Wheat 


Flour 




Actual 


Wheat 
Equiva- 
lent 


Total 


A. Receipts: 
66 Ocean Vessels 


225,000.006 
5,740.000 


160,125.042 
4,517.180 


220,557.909 
5,740.000 


445,557.915 


Less Wheat milled to Flourd) 
Plus Flour milled from Wheat 


Total Received 


219,260.006 


164,642.222 


226,297.909 


445,557.915 




/?. Issues: 
Flmergency Relief 


67,599.402 
39,671.025 
21,113.810 
88,398.555 
799.990 

1,677.224(3) 


19,100.484 
108,046.280 
1,093.210 
31,788.941 
1,517.022 
458.770 
.613 
2,636.902(4] 


26,309.205 
148,824.075 
1,505.800 
43,786.420 
2,089.562 
631.914 
.844 
3,150.089 


93,908.607 
188,495.100 
22,619.610 
132,184.975 <2) 
2,889.552 
631.914 
.844 
4,827.313(5) 


Engineering Relief 


Farm Rehabilitation 


gales 


Transportation 


Transferred to N.E.C 


Samples 








219,260.006 


164,642.222 


226,297.909 


445,557.915 





(5) 



At Nantung and Nanking Depots. 

Includes Local Sales. 

Excludes 3502.777 tons shortage if allowance be made for differences due to use 

chao-fah scale extensively in the interior. 

Excludes 662.505 tons shortage if allowance be made for differences due to use of 

chao-fah scale extensively in the interior. 



Audited and found correct. 



AUDITORS, 
SHU-LUN PAN & CO. 
Chartered Accountants, 
Signed, S. L. Pan. 



229 



APPENDIX IV 



Allocations for Emergency Relief 



APPENDIX IV 1 



I. ALLOCATIONS FOR EMERGENCY RELIEF THROUGH DISTRICT OFFICES. 



District Office 


Cash 


Wheat 
Equivalent^) 


Kiangpei District Office 


$ 783,400.31 


14,605.60 


Ningshu District Office 


35,000.00 


2,476.41 


Kiukiang District Office 


467,179.92 


9,204.19 


Chengchow District Office including transfer to Bishop 






White's Committee 


881,277.10 


14,131.42 


Wuhu District Office 


410,014.03 


12,059.72 


North Anhwei District Office 339,434.52 


8,324.33 


Wu-Han District Office and Hupeh Rehabilitation ; 




Committee 1,247,690.00 


20,000.00 


Changsha District Office and Hunan Rehabilitation 




Committee ' 309,710.17 


34,499.39 


Tsinan District Office 207,516.60 
Chang-An District Office 46,800.00 








Total 



$4,728,022.65 



115,301.06 



II. ALLOCATIONS THROUGH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS. 



Organization 


Cash 


Wheat 
Equivalent 


Central and South Anhwei Joint Relief Committee 
Nanking Flood Relief Association 
Hunan Flood Emergency Relief Committee 
Szechuen Province Relief Committee 
YiJhnan Province Relief Committee 
Kweichow Province Relief Committee 
Fukien Province Relief Committee 
Kwangtung Province Relief Committee 


$ 126,942.16 
129,026.00 
12,180.00 
40,000.00 
40,000.00 
50,000.00 
55,000.00 
38,832.70 


1,000.00 
















Total 


$ 491,980.86 


1,000.00 



(i) Will not agree exactly with figures in Appendix III 6 and Appendix VIII due to 
local transfers between Division representatives and to local variations in conversion 
rates between wheat and flour, and because deliveries did not exactly follow 
allocations. 

233 



III. SUBSIDIES TO COOPERATING RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS 



Organization 


Cash 


Wheat 
Equivalent (!) 


Shanghai Refugee Camp 
All-China Emergency Relief Association 
Association for Relief of Refugees in War Area 
Hsian Shan Orphanage 
Ningyuan Gruel Kitchen, Nanking 
World Swastika Society, Nanking 
Nanking Kwang Lee Benevolent Society, Nanking 
Conservancy of Tan Kiang, Chinkiang 
Wu-hsing emergency relief, Chekia/ig 1 
Yencheng Gruel Kitchen, Kiangpei 
Mr. T. L. Ilarnsberger (Missionary) Nantung 
Kwanchen-Wei Dyke 
Citizen's Emergency Relief Committee Shanghai 
Capital Relief Committee 


$ 20,000.00 
10,000.00 
10,000.00 
15,727.45 
15,000.00 
2,000.00 
3,000.00 
30,000.00 
800.00 


















5.64 
15.71 

102.32 
136.37 
1,105.13 











Total 



$ 106,527.45 



1,365.17 



IV. RECAPITULATION. 





Cash 


Wheat 
Equivalent 


1. Through District Offices 


$4,728,022.65 


115,301.06 


2. Through other organizations 


491,980.86 


1,000.00 


3. Subsidies to co-operating relief organizations 
4. Cost of purchases for Emergency Relief of 


106,527.45 


1,365.17 


winter clothing, flour, and other supplies, 






including transport costs 


1,635,977.67 





Total $6,962,508.63 


117,666.23d) 



Will not agree exactly with figures in Appendix III 6 and Appendix VIII due to local 
transfers between Division representatives and to local variations in conversion rates 
between wheat and flour, and because deliveries did not exactly follow allocations. 



234 



APPENDIX V 

1. Deliveries and Payments for Farm Rehabilitation. 

2. Agreement with Kiangsu Provincial Authorities. 



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APPENDIX V 2 

AGREEMENT WITH KIANGSU PROVINCIAL AUTHORITIES 

The Kiangsu Provincial Government (herein called 
the Provincial Government), in order to supply the press- 
ing need of the Grand Canal Dyke Works of Kiangpei, 
arranges with the National Flood Relief Commission 
(herein called the Flood Commission) to borrow from the 
latter American wheat allocated to Farm Rehabilitation 
upon the following terms: 

(1) The amount borrowed is ten thousand (10,000) 
tons, which, at the market value, is equivalent to dollars 
seven hundred sixty seven thousand only ($767,000) 
which will be the principal of the loan. 

(2) The duration of this loan is six months. The 
principal and the interest are to be fully paid in July, 
1933. 

(3) It is designated that land tax due from the 
various hsicns to the Kiangsu Provincial Government for 
the first six months of the twenty-first year of the 
Republic of China be set aside as the first security of the 
loan, and that coupons of the Reconstruction Bond of 
the Kiangsu Provincial Government for dollars one 
million only ($1,000,000) at forty per cent (40) 
discount, payment beginning from the fifth instalment, 
be set as the second security. The shortage will be 
secured by Provincial Treasury Notes secured by the land 
tax of Kiangsu Province for dollars two hundred eighty 
thousand only ($280,000.) 

238 



(4) The rate of interest of this loan is fixed at five 
per mille per month. 

(5) In case the land tax collected by the Provincial 
Government is not sufficient to pay fully the loan upon 
the expiration of six months, the time limit for the com- 
plete repayment may be extended for six months, half 
of the principal and the interest to be paid in the first 
six months, and the balance, in the second six months. 
No further extension of the time limit will be considered 
after the first extension. 

(6) The Department of Finance of the Provincial 
Government will give orders to the various hsicns of the 
province that the first security of this loan should be 
paid to the Bank of Kiangsu, designated for the repay- 
ment of the principal and the interest of the loan, and 
not diverted to any other use. In case the land tax 
is not paid to the Bank of Kiangsu, the bank will take 
the responsibility to arrange with the Department of 
Finance for replenishment from other sources of the 
Provincial treasury. 

(7) In case the principal and the interest of the 
loan are not repaid at the expiration of the time limit, 
the Flood Commission is entitled to sell the second 
security, which will be supplemented by the Provincial 
Government, if it is insufficient to repay fully the loan. 

(8) The principal and the interest repaid will be 
completely appropriated as the foundation for farm 
rehabilitation. 

239 



(9) Upon delivery of the American wheat, the 
Provincial Government should issue a receipt for the 
value of this wheat as stated in item (1) to the Flood 
Commission, which should return the same receipt to the 
Provincial Government upon the full repayment of the 
principal and the interest of the loan. 

Koo Tso TUNG (Seal) 
Chairman, Kiangsu Provincial Government. 

Su SHIH Fu (Seal) 

Committee Member, and Chief, Department 
of Finance, Kiangsu Provincial Government. 

II 

RECEIPT FROM THE KIANGSU PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT 

Received from the National Flood Relief Commis- 
sion 10,000 tons of American wheat as a loan for the 
Grand Canal Dyke Work of Kiangpei, this being equiv- 
alent to dollars seven hundred sixty seven thousand 
($767,000.) 

Koo Tso TUNG (Seal) 
Chairman, Kiangsu Provincial Government. 

Su SHIH Fu (Seal) 

Committee Member, and Chief, Department 
of Finance, Kiangsu Provincial Government. 

NOTE 

As the Reconstruction Bonds of the Kiangsu 
Provincial Government were appropriated to the Chin- 
kiang Chamber of Commerce to be used as a revolving 
fund, the Provincial Government asked permission to 

240 



substitute Provincial Treasury Notes secured by land tax 
of that province for $1,280,000 as the security for the 
loan. This was accepted by the National Flood Relief 
Commission, and on October 29th, 1932 the Commission 
received the above Treasury Notes for $1,280,000 which 
were entrusted to the Central Bank of China, Chinkiang, 
for custody. The rate of interest on these Treasury Notes 
is 8 per cent per annum, and the notes are to be paid in 
three instalments on December, 1933 ; December, 1934 ; 
and December, 1935. 



241 



APPENDIX VI 



1. Organization Chart Engineering and Labour 
Relief Division. 

2. Location and Length of Districts. 

3. Summary of Work Done. 

4. Tables Showing by Districts, Work Done in Each 
Section. 

5. Report of Dyke Inspection Party. 



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APPENDIX VI 2 
LOCATION AND LENGTH OF DISTRICTS 



Dis- 
trict 
No. 


Dist. Engineer 
or 
Superintendent 


River 
System 


Province 


Boundaries of Districts 


Dis- 
tance 
(Kms.) 


Location 
of Office 


1 


H. S. Sung 


Yangtse 


Kiangsu 


South Bank: Chinkiang to Tzuhui River 


230 (2) 


Nanking 




C. S.Hsueh (1) 






North Kuachow to Wukiangchen 






2 


Y. L. Lin 





Anhwei 


South T.^ai Shih Chi to Hsinkow 


275 


Wuhu 










North Wukiangchen to opposite 














Tatung 






3 


I. H. Pei 








South Hsinkow to Fangchiakow 


34f> 


Anking 










North Opposite Tatung to 15 














Kms. below Hukow 






4 


P. T, Yen 


tt 


Kiangsi 


South Yungliuwu to opposite Kiu- 


210 


Kiukiang 










kiang 














North 10 Kms. above Fuhsingchen 














to Ertaokow 






5 


Y. L. Ho 




Ilupeh 


South Opposite Wusuch to Chin- 
kow 


421 


Hankow 










North Ertaokow to Tachunshan 






6 


S.L.Yang (1) 
C. W. Cheng 


) 





Chinkow to Chenglingki 


331 


Sinti 










Chenglingki to Tomaopu 




Cheng- 


7 


C. C. Yu 


t) 


ft 




371 


lingki 










Hankow to Sientaochen 




Sien- 


8 


M. C. Chiang 


Han 


tt 




255 


taochen 


9 


H. C, Liu 


n 


tt 


Sientaochen to Chienkiang 


jChien- 
287 Jkiang 


10 


(3) 


FEsiang & 
Yuan 


Hunan 


Lulintan to Hsiang Yin: Changteh to 
Lifanhu: Yiyang to Wantzuhu 


123 
253 


Changsha 


11 


T. Y. Ma 


Hwai 


Anhwei 


Ying River and West Fei River 


379 


Cheng- 
yangkwan 


12 


Woodson Wang 


>t 


M 


Kuei River and North Fei River 


157) 
245) 


Pengpu 


13 


C, C. Chang 


it 


ft 


Tuo Ho, Hwen Ho and Hwui River 303 


Wuho 


14 


P. Y. Hu 


Grand 
Canal 


Kiangsu 


Shaopo to Pao Ying 


ICO 


Yen- 
cheng 


15 


(4) 


Li Hsia Ho 


it 


She Yang Kong 


11.7 


Funing 


16 


C. L. Tang 





tt 


Hsin Yang Kong 


5.7 


Yencheng 


17 


K. Shu 


ft 




Towlungkong, Wangkong and Chu Kong 


27.1 


Tungtai 


18 


M. S. Yang 


Sha, Lo, 


Honan 


Regions of Rivers Yi, Lo and Sha 


380.0 


Yien- 
cheng 



1. In succession. 

2. Lengths of Districts 1 to 9 inclusive estimated from existing survey maps. 

3. Managed by Hunan Flood Rehabilitation Committee. 

4. Divided between Districts 1G and 17. 



246 



APPENDIX VI 4 

Tables Showing, by Districts, 
Work Done, etc. in each Section. 



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264 



DYKE WORK DONE, DISTRICT NO. 10 

NOTE : Work in District No. 10 was supervised by Hunan 
Flood Rehabilitation Committee and not reported in detail. See 
text, page 117. 



265 



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WORK DONE DISTRICT No. 15 
District No. 15 was consolidated with District No. 16. 



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277 



APPENDIX VI 5 

REPORT ON INSPECTION OF DYKES AND OTHER WORKS CON- 
STRUCTED BY THE NATIONAL FLOOD RELIEF COMMISSION 

Shanghai, February 13, 1933. 
His Excellency, 

Mr. T. V. Soong, 

Chairman of National Flood Relief Commission. 

Sir, 

The undersigned were appointed by Your Excellency 
to make an official inspection of the dykes and other 
works constructed by the Engineering and Labor Relief 
Division of the National Flood Relief Commission. Your 
instructions were embodied in a letter to us substantially 
as follows : 

"As the engineering and labor relief is now draw- 
ing to a close, it is necessary that the works 
constructed by the Engineering and Labor Relief 
Division be inspected and reported upon with 
a view to their official acceptance. You are invited 
to be a member of the Committee to carry out this 
inspection, and I would appreciate it if you will 
render me a report along with others at an early 
date." 

In accordance with the above instructions we left 
Shanghai on November 26, 1932 and proceeded to Nan- 
king where a formal ceremony in connection with the 
completion of the work was conducted on board S. S. 
Kianghsin, We proceeded up the Yangtse River and 
arrived in Hankow on December 3rd, 1932. On 
December 4th, we took a small ship for Kienli on the 

278 



middle Yangtse. After our return on December 10th, 
we went to Yokow on the upper reaches of the Han River. 
On December 14th, we left Hankow for Honan by rail, 
reached Pengpu on December 19th and proceeded thence 
to Chengyangkwan, Wuho and other cities. On 
December 22nd, we arrived in Yangchow, and went to 
Kao Yu, both on the Grand Canal. On December 31st, 
we arrived in Tungtai. On January 9th, 1933, we return- 
ed to Shanghai, thus concluding the trip. 

The following is a brief account of what we have 
found. 

1. Yangtse River Dykes 

The total length of Yangtse Dykes from Chinkiang 
up to Shi-sher Hsien in Hupeh, repaired or reconstructed 
by the Division, was about 1,800 kilometers. We selected 
the more important works and gave them careful in- 
spection, namely: in District No. 1, Kiangsu, Foo Kao 
Chow Dyke and Kwoa Tung Dyke on the north bank; 
in District No. 2, Anhwei, Ko Chi Shan Dyke, Lo Kong 
Dyke, Hwang Sze Tai Dyke and Lo Pei Chang Dykes; 
in District No. 3, Kwang Chi Wei Dyke, Ma Wha Dyke 
in Anhwei; in District No. 4, Wei Kow and Tuan Yao 
Dykes near Kiukiang (constructed by the C.I.F.R.C. 
under an arrangement with this Commission) ; in District 
No. 5, Hupeh, Wu Wei Dyke, Wu Fung Dyke, Yang, Po 
Dyke, Wukiang Dyke, Kiang Yung Dyke, Hankow City 
Bund Dyke (built by Hupeh Flood Rehabilitation Com- 
mittee under an arrangement with this Commission), 
Chang Kung Dyke; in District No. 6, Hupeh, Hu Chia 
Chow Dyke, Ying Chia Ma Do Dyke, Chow Ma Do Dyke ; 
in District No. 7, Hupeh, Shang Chu Wai Dyke, Dykes in 
Kienli Hsien. 

279 



All the above named dykes (with the exception of 
Lo Pei Chang Dyke in District No. 2 on which work 
was still in progress under the National Economic 
Council, its commencement having been delayed) were 
found to have complied with the standards of the Division 
and to be in satisfactory condition. Most of them below 
Hankow had a height one meter above the 1931 flood 
level, and above Hankow a height equal, as a general 
rule, to the level of that flood. The top width was over 
four meters, and in the case of some special dykes in 
Hupeh Province, the top width was found to be as much 
as eight meters. In all cases, the earthwork was found 
sound and stable. 

As we recalled the sufferings of millions of people 
in the Yangtse Valley as a result of the flood of 1931, and 
as we realised the excellence of the crops gathered in this 
region in 1932, we could not but appreciate the value 
of the work of the Commission in restoring these dykes. 
Banditry of all kinds has disappeared as the flooded dis- 
tricts were rehabilited. 

Our only criticism, if at all, was the use of both 
slopes of the dykes in places to build houses thereon or 
to plant food crops. Measures should be taken im- 
mediately to prohibit such practice. 

2. Han River Dykes 

In this region during 1931 and 1932, the "red" 
bandits were rampant. There, great difficulty had been 
experienced in carrying out the Flood Commission's pro- 
gram. Our party left Hankow on December 10, 1932, 
by omnibuses, passing Han Chuan, Yung Mung, Ying 

280 



Cheng, Ching Shan, Tien Meng to Yokow. Those places 
had just been wrested from the grip of communists by 
the National Army, and everywhere we found desolation, 
and heard stories of the terrible suffering that the people 
had passed through, involving the death of many 
thousands. On the next day, we returned by steam 
launch and inspected dykes in Districts No. 8 and No. 
9, namely, Ching Hwa Sze, Lee Chia Chu, Chow Chia 
Yueh, Yang Chia Yueh, Peh Sha Tai, Sien Tao Chen, 
Too Sze Chen, etc. These also were found to have com- 
plied with the standards of the Division, and to have 
been constructed in accordance with the particulars in 
the "Compendium" as regards the height above 1931 
flood level. All the earthwork was found to be sound 
and stable. 

Considerable damage had been done to dykes above 
Yokow by the flood of 1931, but owing to the presence 
and interference of the "red" bandits, no repairs could be 
undertaken except the closing of breaches. As the 
bandits have now been suppressed, additional work 
should be done there to strengthen the old dykes. 

3. Work in Honan Province 

The work done by the 18th District was of two 
kinds : 

(a) Masonry and concrete work On Sha Ho, as at 
Chow Chia Kow, Lai Ho Sa, Yencheng (outside of West 
and South Gates) and Loyang (South Gate), the banks 
were protected with bricks and stones, but were in a 
very dilapidated condition. The Commission has done 
a most extensive and imposing work of repair along 
the banks of the rivers Sha Ho, E-Ho, and Lo Ho. 

281 



(b) Earthwork on dykes along the Sha Ho, Ying 
Ho, Lo Ho, and Ying Ho which were considerably streng- 
thened everywhere. 

We have carefully inspected both classes of work, 
and found them satisfactory, particularly the earthwork 
which was accomplished at a minimum expenditure. The 
inhabitants in Yencheng told us that owing to the com- 
pletion of channelling and dyke work along the Yin 
River alone, over 300,000 mow of arable land had 
yielded excellent crops, and that the harvest was the best 
in fifty-four years. Before the completion of these dykes, 
the value of land was less than 10 dollars per mow 
whereas now the same land has appreciated to 120 
dollars. 

Our only regret was that as the allocation was small 
and the work started late only a limited amount could 
be completed. Considerable work still remains to be 
done. The province has been visited alternately by flood 
and drought, and the inhabitants have been in a pitiable 
plight. It is hoped that additional funds may be made 
available so that further work of a similar nature can be 
carried out in the near future. 

4. Hwai River Dykes and Culverts 

This region was divided into three districts. The 
dyke work extended from Yu Yi Hsien up to Cheng 
Yang Kwan, a distance of 1,000 kilometers. Channelling 
work was about 20 kilometers in length, and was on the 
upper part of the Peh Wei Ho. The culvert work con- 
sisted of 24 re-inforced concrete installations. The 
magnitude of the three kinds of work combined was un- 
precedented in this part of China. 

282 



The area to be covered by inspection was so large 
and the time at our disposal so limited that inspection 
was of necessity selective rather than comprehensive. 
At Wuho, we inspected dykes on the Hwai River and its 
tributary Wei Ho and Tow Ho, and proceeded up to Lin 
Huai Kwan, Peh Wai Ho Kow, Pengpu, Huai Yuen, Lo 
Ho Kai, Feng Tai, and Ya Shan Row, till Cheng Yang 
Kwan was reached. At all these places, we went ashore 
and inspected dykes or culverts. They were found to 
conform to the Division's standards, the height of dykes 
being about one meter above the 1931 flood level. We 
were informed by the field workers that above Feng Tai 
owing to the presence of "red" bandits, the dykes on 
both sides of the Huai River have not been finished 
even up to first stage i.e. up to their pre-ilood level. We 
were also told by Mr. Chang, Superintendent of District 
No. 13, that the dyke work in that District was done 
according to plans of the Huai River Commission, but 
that owing to lateness in starting, certain portions of 
the work on the To Ho were still unfinished. Through 
the opposition of large land owners, and the interference 
of "Red Spear" bands, the dykes on both sides of Wei 
Ho could not be completed according to schedule. These 
unfinished works have been taken over by the National 
Economic Council. 

5. Grand Canal Dykes in Northern Kiangsu 

The portion of the Grand Canal in Northern Kiangsu 
forms an important link for the passage of water from 
the Hwai and Nie Rivers into the Yangtse River. On 
the proper functioning of this c^nal depends the well- 
being of people in twenty hsicns in northern Kiangsu. In 

283 



the 1931 flood, twenty-seven breaches occurred in the 
east side dyke while serious erosion took place on the 
west side dyke. District No. 14 was responsible for the 
greater portion of the earthwork on the west side dyke, 
but the actual construction was placed in the hands of 
the Northern Kiangsu Rehabilitation Committee and the 
Chinese Foreign Famine Relief Committee, with a sub- 
sidy from this Commission. 

Our inspection started from Lo Cha northwards, 
passing Lai Shen An to Kao-yu. We noticed that all the 
breaches in the east side dyke had been properly closed, 
including Lai Shen An, which had to be reconstructed 
several times owing to the treacherous nature of the 
foundation soil. If the slopes of the west dyke, which 
has also been properly repaired, are protected with stone 
the structure will be still stronger. 

The earthwork on the west side dyke has also been 
completed. 

6. Channelling Work in Lee Sha Ho 

The five channels in Northern Kiangsu originally 
formed outlets of the Huai River to the sea. In the last one 
hundred years, there has been considerable accretion to 
the coast line of this region with the result that all the 
five outlets have deteriorated seriously. The Hwai River 
has been unable to drain off its surplus water, and the 
result has been havoc for almost a century. The flood of 
1931 broke the Grand Canal dykes, and inundated the 
entire Lee Sha Ho basin to a depth of over ten feet. The 
basin is below sea level, and the flood water was 
thus unable to escape. The Division's plan was to drain 

284 



off this water by straightening the bends and by deepen- 
ing the channels of the five outlets, while two new chan- 
nels, Ho Tow Ho and Ming Pien Ho were also completed. 
The construction of tidal gates now in progress will 
prevent the inflow of salt water during high tide. 

We have found that the following works have 
complied with the Division's standards and agree with 
the particulars in the "Compendium". 

In District No. 17: 

Deepening and straightening of Ho To Ho at and 
below Chuen Chia Ngo. 

Straightening of bend on Chu Kong at Tien Shui 

Wa Tze. 
Straightening of bend on Wong Kong at Shi Chia 

Wai. 

Straightening of bend on Tow Lung Kong at Tung 
Feng Chu. 

In District No. 16: 

Straightening of bend on Sing Yang Kang at Nan- 

yang Ngo. 
Channelling work Tung Men Cha Ho, Tien Fer Cha, 

Yai Shui Ho. 

The work in District No. 16 was still unfinished at 
the time of inspection, and, according to reports of men 
in the field, the earthwork has already been taken over 
by the National Economic Council. The tidal gates at 
Tow Lung and Ho To outlets to the sea are being con- 
structed by the National Economic Council. We feel 
that the tidal gates at Wong Kong and Cho Kong out- 
lets are also important, and if they can be started as soon 

285 



as possible, the inhabitants will be very grateful to the 
Government. 

Conclusion 

In accordance with your instructions, we have inspect- 
ed all the work distributed over five Provinces, and have 
found it in all cases to have complied with the standards 
of the Division and to agree with the particulars supplied 
by the Engineering and Labor Relief Division of the 
Commission. The funds have been economically 
handled. The mobilization of a large number of Chinese 
engineers almost at a moment's notice, the completion of 
difficult works of gigantic proportions in a short time, are 
unprecedented in Chinese history. They are the result 
of the able direction of your Commission. The apprecia- 
tion of the people benefited was shown by the spontane- 
ous welcome given to us wherever we went. 

The unfinished work has now been taken over by 
the National Economic Council. For the finished works, 
special regulations are required for proper care and 
maintenance. Those who were responsible for the 
excellent results of this form of relief merit your special 
consideration. 

Col. Stroebe's daily note is herewith attached for 
perusal. 1 

Respectfully submitted, 

Sir John Hope Simpson 
C. H. Lee 
G. G. Stroebe 
Z. Y. Chow 
P. S. Shen ^ 

1 Not included in this report. 

286 



APPENDIX VII 

Table 

1 Financial Report, Department of Hygiene and 
Sanitation. 

2 The National Flood Relief Commission De- 
partment of Hygiene and Sanitation, Organization 
Chart. 

3 Number of Patients Treated and Preventive In- 
oculations Given by the Field Units and Travelling 
Clinics for Labour Relief Districts, September, 1931 
to September 1932 

4 Number of Patients Treated by the Hospitals 
According to Classification of Diseases, September 
1931 to March 1932. 

5 Number of Patients Treated by the Travelling 
Clinics for Labour Relief Districts According to 
Classification of Diseases, February to September 
ber 1932. 

6 Sanitation Work of Field Units and Travelling 
Clinics for Labour Relief Districts, September 1931 
to September 1932. 

7 Number of Persons Given Preventive Inocula- 
tions by Field Units and the Travelling Clinics for 
Labour Relief Districts, September 1931 to Septem- 
ber 1932. 

8 Cholera Epidemic in China during 1932. 

9 Number of Patients Treated in Special Cholera 
Hospitals, April to September 1932. 

10 Malaria Survey at Nanking, Soochow, Hang- 
chow, Wukong and Yangtse Ports, November 1931 
to January 1932. 

11 Malaria Survey at Nanking, 1932. 

12 Number of People Sick Per 1,000 Persons. 

13 Comparative Data on Deaths of Refugees, 1931. 



287 



APPENDIX VII 1 
Financial Report 

Department of Hygiene and Sanitation, September 1931 
August 1932 : 

Receipts : 

1. From the Commission $610,093.61 

2. Appropriation from National Famine Relief 
Commission 20,000.00 

3. Contribution for drugs from the Women's 

Foreign Missionary Society, Peiping- . . . . 5,000.00 

4. Appropriation from the International Famine 

Relief Commission to the Wuhu Field Unit. . 1,000.00 

5. Interest from Bank 663.79 

6. Refund for damage of bedding 5.00 

7. Refund from the North Anhwei Station for 

extra amount advanced 10.00 

Total Receipts $636,772.40 

Disbursements : 

1. Salaries $202,426.39 

2. Running expenses 123,352.95 

3. Equipment 38,288.69 

4. Medical instruments and drugs 177,718.08 



Total Disbursements 
Balance, August 31, 1932 . . 



$541,786.11 



$ 94,986.29 



The balance of $94,986.29 as of August 31, 1932 was 
transferred by the Commission to the Central Field Health 
Station of the National Economic Council to carry on unfinish- 
ed work in connection with the Anti-cholera and Anti-epidemic 
Campaign. 



289 



APPENDIX VII 2 



ORGANIZATION CHART 



DEPARTMENT OP HYGIENE AND SANITATION 



APPENDIX VII 4 



NUMBER OF PATIENTS TREATED BY THE HOSPITALS AND TRAVELLING CLINICS 
OF FIELD UNITS ACCORDING TO CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES 

September 1931 to March 1932 







Northern 










Diseases 


Wuhan 




Kiukian? 


Nanking 


Wuhu 


Total 






Kiangsu 










Infectious Diseases: 














Smallpox 


203 





. ^ 







203 


Measles 


306 


529 








__ 


835 


Meningitis 


5 











^ 


5 


Typhoid 


239 


84 


8 





__ 


331 


Cholera 


810 


1 


16 








827 


Dysentery 


9,336 


7,433 


454 








17,223 


Typhus 








12 








12 


Malaria 


8,104 


3,196 


804 








12,104 


Others 


1,137 


9 


t) 








1,155 


Unclassified 











2,116 





2,116 


Medical: 














Gastro-intestinal 














diseases 


6,852 


3,129 


1,301 


2,085 





13,340 


Common cold 





990 





4,605 





5,655 


Others 


6,055 


3,365 


719 








10,139 


Surgical 


2,938 





186 


4,014 





7,138 


Trachoma 


1,283 


885 





_ 





48,372 


Ear-Nose-Throat 


_ 


__ 


1 


1,233 





2,168 


Skin Diseases 


38,071 


4,173 


3,061 


3,067 





1,234 


Others 


19,856 


5,972 


2,201 


35 


28,064 


Unclassified 














6,250 6,250 


Total 


95,195 


29,766 


8,772 


17,188 


6,250 157,171 



Note: The above figures do not include the 
Clinics for Labour Relief Districts, 



number of patients treated by the Travelling 
which were organized since February, 1932. 



295 



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297 



APPENDIX VII 7 

NUMBER OF PERSON GIVEN PREVENTIVE INOCULATIONS BY FIELD UNITS 
AND TRAVELLING CLINICS FOR LABOUR RELIEF DISTRICTS 

September 1931 to September 1932 



District 


Anti-Cholera 
Inoculations 


SmallDox 
Vaccinations 


Anti-Meninizrococcus 
Inoculations 


Total 




Wuhan 


113,686 


106,859 




220,545 




North Kiangsu 


44,881 


29,238 




74,119 


.! 


Nanking 


42,641 


18,628 




61,269 


(S 

> 


Wuhu 


14,000 


5,000 




19,000 


S 


Kiukiang 


4,270 


5,919 




10,198 


'a! 

G 


Shanghai 


5,103 


2,869 




7,972 




Total 


224,590 


168,513 




393,103 




District No. 1 




587 


229 


816 




2 12,8H 


11,867 




24,678 


3 


> tt j 


18,724 


412 




19,136 


& 


, 4 


75,618 


691 




76,309 


i+ 

3 

j> 


, 5 
, 6 


2,753 1 
6,276 








3 


, 7 


<),456 \- 


13,892 




96,101 


M 


, 8 


0,950 








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53,774 J 








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, 12 










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, 13 


30,228 


1,688 




31,916 


4 


, 14 


31,321 1 








.5 


, 15 


29,291 \- 


59,278 




198,765 


> 


, 1(5 


20,074 J 








2 


, 17 


58,801 








H 














Total 


359,077 


88,415 


229 


447,721 




Hankow 


179,914 






179,914 




Wuchang, Hanyang 


107,993 






107,993 




Ichang, Wusueh, Shasi, 












Hsinti, Yenning, Chin- 












kow, Shaosliih 


23,579 






23,579 




Changsha 


18,282 






18,282 




Changteh, Yiyang, Pao- 












ching, Hengshan, Heng- 










s 


yang 


14,107 






14,107 


V 


Nanchang 


36,329 






36,329 


o 


Fengyang 


4,800 






4,800 




Tuncrshan, Tangshan 


8,400 






8,400 




Paoshan, Kiating, Tai- 












chang, Kuenshan 


127,223 






127,223 




Nankinr Municipality 


136,421 ! 


136,421 




Shanghai 


660,000 






660,000 




Total 


1,317,048 






1,317,048 


TOTAL 


1,900,715 


256,928 


229 


2,157,872 



298 



APPENDIX VII 8 
CHOLERA EPIDEMIC IN CHINA DURING 1932 



Place 


Number t>f 
Infected Cities 


Number of 
Cases 


Number "of 
Deaths 


Death Rate 


Shanghai 


1 


4,260 


317 


7.4 


Nanking 


1 


1,588 


373 


23.5 


Peiping 


1 


493 


391 


79.3 


Kiangsu 


38 


10,430 


1,606 


15.4 


Hopei 


64 


14,517 


5,036 


34.7 


Honan 


30 


10,558 


2,362 


22.4 


Shantung 


27 


18,153 


2,926 


16.1 


Ql 


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ft 09S 


o 












Kiangsi 


14 


5,918 


1,955 


33.0 


Anhwei 


19 


3,349 


1,214 


36.2 


Shensi 


17 


12,014 


3,468 


27,4 


Hupch 


12 


2,832 


1,231 


43.5 


Chckiang 


13 


6,423 


657 


10.2 


Suiyuan 


6 


2,000 


1,057 


52.9 


Chahar 


7 


018 


183 


29.6 


Fukien 


5 


1,879 


973 


51.9 


Hunan 


4 


1,553 


338 


22.0 


Kwangtung 


2 


1,084 


358 


33.0 


Yunnan 


3 


54 


9 


16.7 


Chin.cchai 


3 


121 


12 


9.9 


Szechuan 


6 


1,968 


501 


25.5 


Kwan^si 


1 


2 


1 


50.0 


Kansu 


3 


222 


78 


35.1 


Total 


306 


100,666 


31,974 


31.8 



299 



APPENDIX VII 9 



NUMBER OF PATIENTS TREATED IN SPECIAL CHOLERA HOSPITALS 



April to September, 1932 



Hosoitals 


Patients 
Admitted 


Patients 
Recovered 


Deaths 


Case 
Mortality 
Rate 


Hankow Anti-Cholera Hospital 


402 


356 


46 


11.4 


Wuchang-Hanyang Anti-Cholera Hospital 


550 


483 


67 


12.2 


Nanking: 
Central Hospital 
Isolation Hospital 
Hsiakwan Anti-Cholera Hospital 
Other Hospitals 


1,011 
39 
133 

72 


876 
34 
126 
57 


135 

5 
7 
15 


13.4 

12.8 
5.3 
20.8 


Taichow Anti-Cholera Hospital 


138 


128 


10 


7.2 


Yencheng Isolation Hospital 


4 


4 





0.0 


Wu-hu Anti-Cholera Hospital 


85 


72 


13 


15.0 


Nanchang Anti-Cholera Hospital 


623 


564 


59 


9.5 


Amoy Anti-Cholera Hospital 


327 


256 


71 


21.7 


Anti-Cholera Hospitals in adjacent 
Hsiens of Shanghai 


389 


358 


31 


8.0 


Total 


3,773 


3,314 


459 


12.2 



300 







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302 



APPENDIX VII 12 
NUMBER OF PEOPLE SICK PER 1000 PERSONS 

11,791 Farm Families in 245 Localities in 87 hsicn, 1931 Flood, 
Yangtze and Hwai Valleys. 



Province 


With fever 


With diurihca 


Other CUUHI-S 


Alt causes 


Hunan 


4cS 


32 


1 C8 A 


| 133 ' 


Hupeh 


107 


:i5 


^ S2 


k!2i 


Kiang-si 


12 


1:1 


r>f) 


121 


South Anhwei 


30 


;io 


37 


100 


South Kian^su 


<) 


28 


35 


72 


North Anhwei 


<)0 


" " 74 


87 


251 


North Kian^su 


23 


11!) 


(i,, 


205 


Average 


57 


50 


(50 


107 



303 



APPENDIX VII 13 
COMPARATIVE DATA ON DEATHS OF REFUGEES, 1931 



ITEMS 


Information from 


11,791 farm families 
1 in 245 localities in 87 
hfften 


S,796 farm families in 
refugee camps in 
Wuchangr, Shanghai 
& Nankins 


Deaths per 1,000 (in first 100 days of flood) 


22 


63 


Per cent of persons who died who were 
Males 
Females 


55 
45 


51 

49 


Of males per cent: 
Under 5 years of age 
5-14 
15-29 
30-44 
45-59 
60-or more 


33 
20 
15 
14 
9 
i) 


33 
31 
14 
6 
8 
8 


Of females per cent: 
Under 5 years of age 
5-14 
15-29 
30~44 
45-59 
60-or more 


27 
20 
14 
12 
10 
17 


27 
32 
14 
8 
8 
11 


Per cent of deaths caused by: 


100 


100 


- Browning- 
Disease j 
Starvation 
Others 
No information 


24 
70 
j 

1 
4 


10 

87 


3 



304 



INDEX 



*ccounts: 

Cash & Grain 53, 56, 137, 194, 

208, 209, 210, 221, 229 

Department & Division. .12, 20, 52 

Additional Dyke 8, 22, 111, 142 

Administration (See Organization) 
Administrative Expenses. (See Ex- 
penses) 

Advertisements 14, 155, 210 

Advisory Committee: Dept. of Hygiene 

& Sanitation 151 

Advisory Committee: China Famine 

Relief U.S.A 99, 144 

Aerial Survey. (See Survey) 

Afforestation 8, 9 

Allocations, Accuracy of 60, 90 

Allocations of Wheat. (See Wheat) 
American Commercial Attache. ... 16, 47 

Government 46, 49, 192 

,, Legation 47 

Minister 47 

American National Red Cross . . 5, 158 
American Vessels 16, 24 

Anhwei : 

Allocations and Appropriations to 

14, 67, 68, 98, 100 

Flood Conditions in 4, 184 

Relief Work. 

Emergency 66, 76, 79, 90 

Engineering & Labour 

110, 117, 124, 126, 142 

Farm Rehabilitation 94, 100, 102 
Medical Relief 154, 175, 176, 182 
Small Works. 82, 84, 87, 88, 187 

Anti-Cholera Campaign 173, 175-183 

Appendices 199-306 



Appropriations, Cash: 

Anhwei 14, 98, 100 

Bags & Bagging 26 

Chekiang 14, 68 

China International Famine Re- 
lief Commission 94 

Clothing 81 

Demurrage 29 

Emergency Relief Division. .62-91 
Engineering Division . . 115, 131 

Farm Rehabilitation 94-97 

Field Operations Dept. (See 
various Divisions) 

Freight 24, 30, 46 

Fukien 68 

Grand Canal 97, 130, 131 

Handling- of Wheat 60 

Honan 14 

Hunan 14, 86, 94 

Hupeh 14, 68, 95, 90 

Hygiene & Sanitation. .14, 15, 151 

Inspectorate 64 

Insurance 24 

Kiang_si 14, 68, 98 

Kian<rsu 14, 68, 97 

Kwangtung 68 

Nanking 68 

Ningshu District 76 

Shantung 131, 138, 220 

Stevcdorage 27, 40 

Storage 38 

Szechuen 68 

Yunnan 68 

Area of Flood 21, 192, 203 

Audit & Accounts 12, 20, 194 

Committee 20, 214 

Department 20, 194 

Average Grants per Capita 

72, 79, 80, 100, 140 



INDEX 



B, 



)ags & Bagging 25, 26, 55 

Balances Outstanding 51 

Bandits & Communists 

45, 74, 87, 100, 103, 108, 136 

Bank Loans 14, 19 

Bank of China 51 

Basin Storage. (See Flood Prevention) 

Belgian Red Cross Society 157 

Black Hill Camp 69, 71 

Bonds, Fidelity 35 

Bonds, Flood Relief 17, 19, 97 

Boxer Indemnity, Italian Government. 

17, 116, 128 

Breakage. (See Wastage) 

British Navy, Air Force of 3 

British Ships 24 

Budget 21, 115, 116 

Budget, Wheat 40, 93, 115, 135 

Budhist Temple, Hungshan 70 

Burial of the Dead 162 



c 



Dispersal 73 

Captives . 87, 137 

Cash Advances 14, 50, 51 

Disbursements. (See Appropria- 
tions; also Expenses) 

Central Bank of China 17, 51 

Executive Yuan. (See Executive 
Yuan) 

Field Health Station 151 

Political Council 18 

University, College of Medicine 

156 

Cha Fang Chang 66 

Chairman 11, 12, 21, 47, 144, 1^5. 186, 207 

Cha, L, C 186 

Changsha 42, 76 

Channeling Work 

Ill, 139, 269, 274, 275, 284, 285 



Charitable Institutions, Subsidies to. 65 
Charitable Institutions, Coordination of 

12, 88 

Chekiang Province 14, 68, 182 

Chengchow 33, 132 

Chang Kung Dyke 84 

China Famine Relief, U.S.A. Inc. 99, 144 
China International Famine Relief Com- 
mission 92, 94, 96, 98, 

99, 101, 102, 114, 130, 187, 189, 257 
China Merchants' Steam Navigation Co. 

28 

Chinese Foreign Famine Relief Commit- 
tee 131 

Chinkiang 3, 25, 29, 32, 36, 107, 109, 142 

Cholera 149, 

160, 169, 174, 175-181, 294-296, 300 

Chu Ching Lan 11, 12, 47, 63 

Chwang Chang Hu Canal 45 

Clothing 74, 81 

College of Agriculture & Forestry. (See 
University of Nanking) 

Commissary Division 20, 30-62, 225 

Commission, Organization of 20 

Communications, Ministry of 28 

Communism & Banditry 

45, 74, 87, 100, 103, 108, 136 

Completion of Work.. 61, 67, 81, 96, 142 

Comyn & Sons, W. L 17 

Conclusion * 185-196 

Conservancy Boards 106 

Continuation Program 

92, 94, 96, 101, 142, 188 

Contributions 14, 15, 91, 157, 158 

Cooperative Societies 

92, 93, 94 10, 101, 102 

Cooperation with Local Authorities & 

Other Organizations 

,12, 66, 88, 130 

Coordination of Private Charities 

12, 88 



INDEX 



Corruption 59, 88 

Criticism 81, 85 

Crop 6, 10, 87, 184 

Culverts & Masonry Work 139 

Custody of Funds 20, 50, 137 

Customs Surtax 18, 218, 305 

Czecho-Slovakian Government 157 



D, 



'amage to Grain, etc 38, 56 

Danish State Serum Institute 157 

Deaths 6, 

74, 150, 151, 179, 180, 299, 300, 304 

Deliveries against Allocations, Wheat 40 

at river Ports, Schedule of 28 

Effect on Market prices.. 41 

from America 25, 227 

Delivery Audit Sheet 56 

Demurrage 29 

Depot Advances 52, 228 

Expenses 52, 228 

Masters 34, 225 

Department of Hygiene & Sanitation. 

(See Organization) 
Depth of Inundation. (See Flood) 
Detention Reservoirs. (See Flood Pre- 
vention) 

Director General 19, 47, 209 

Director General's Imprest Account 50, 52 
Disbursements. (See Appropriations; 
also Expenses) 

Diseases, Classification of 

146, 147, 295, 296, 303 

Dispatch Money 29 

Distribution. (See Appropriations; also 
Wheat) 

District Depots 31 

Organization 

64, 66, 92, 98, 117, 151 

Personnel 34, 79, 98, 119 



Divisions: 

Emergency Relief (See Emergency 

Relief Division) 

Engineering & Labour Relief (See 
Engineering & Labour Relief 
Division) 

Commissary (See Wheat, Hand- 
ling) 
Farm Rehabilitation. (See Farm 

Rehabilitation) 

Inspectorate. (See Inspectorate) 
Donations. (See Contributions) 

Drinking Water 162, 180 

Drugs, Medical Supplies and Equipment. 

15 f 157 

Dyke, Additional 8, 22, 111, 142 

Inspection 114, 140, 141, 144 

Length of 139, 246-284 

Loans 86, 93, 95, 100 

Maintenance 195 

New 22, 111 

Repairs 22, 

82-87, 94, 101, 107-139, 246-284 

System 189 

Work.. 251-268, 270-273, 276, 277 
Dutch Government 157 



Carly Relief Work 31, 19, 22, 65 

Education & Propaganda against Cho- 
lera. (See Cholera) 

Egyptian Government 155, 157 

Emergency Relief 13, 19, 22, 

31, 32, 33, 40, 63, 65, 186, 232-234 

Emergency Relief Districts. (See Dis- 
trict Organization) 

Emergency Relief Division 

20, 31, 48, 65, 72, 79, 83, 86, 90 

Employees, Number of 

35, 85, 124, 154, 225 



INDEX 



End of Village Relief 81 

Engineering & Labour Relief Division. 
20, 31, 40, 57, 104-145, 188, 243 

Engineering District: 

No. 1 32, 169, 246, 247, 251 

2 171,246,247,252 

3 173,246,247,253 

4. . . 127, 170, 246, 247, 254, 257 

5. 33, 46,159,246,247,255,257 

6 33, 159, 246, 247, 258 

7. 33, 46, 137, 159, 246, 247, 260 

8 33, 159, 246, 247, 262 

9 33, 45,127,246,247,264 

10 117, 134, 159, 246, 247, 265 

11 33,246,247,266 

12 33, 246, 247, 168 

13 33,246,247,270 

14 32, 167, 246, 247, 272 

15 32,117,167,246,247,273 

16. 32, 117, 167, 246, 247, 274, 285 

17. 32, 117, 167, 246, 247, 275, 285 
18 .' 132, 246, 247, 276 

Engineering Rules & Regulations. 113 

England 4, 15, 91 

Enlisting Field Staff. 34, 89, 98, 102, 
119 (See also Personnel) 

Epidemic Prevention 

160, 165, 168, 170, 172 

Estimates of Engineering Expenses. .143 

Everett Inc., L 17, 27 

Executive Yuan 11, 144, 154 

Expenses 114, 139 

Administrative 

64, 90, 98, 99, 114, 115 

Emergency Relief 

69, 72, 81, 86, 87, 90 

Engineering 115, 126, 128, 131, 143 

Farm Rehabilitation 

94, 95, 96, 98, 99, 100 



Handling Wheat 24, 26, 

29, 30, 38, 40, 42, 43, 46, 60, 227 
Hygiene & Sanitation Division. 289 

Inspection 64 

Extent of Flood (See Flood) 



farm Rehabilitation 20, 31, 

40, 46, 92, 102, 103, 187, 235, 237 

Federal Farm Board 16 

Field Health Work, Organization of. .152 

Field Operations Department 

12, 30, 40, 63, 93, 186, 187 

Field Organization 20, 

30, 64, 66, 93, 98, 112, 116, 130, 152 
Final Distribution. (See Wheat) 

Final Inspection 144, 278 

Finance Department. (See Organiza- 
tion, Finance Department) 

ex-Vice Minister of 144 

Minister of .... 11, 15, 18 

Ministry of 18 

Financial Arrangements 

13, 15, 50, 137, 216 

Finger Prints 125 

Flood 10, 21, 104, 193 

Area 21, 192, 303 

Cause 1 

Damage 6, 7 

Frequency of 8 

Persons drowned by 6, 146 

Population affected by . . 6, 203 

Prevention 8 

Flour (See Wheat) 

Flour Sales. (See Sales of Wheat & 
Flour) 

Food, Preparation of 69, 75 

Prices of 41, 190, 191 

Shortage of 10, 191 



INDEX 



Free Railway Transportation 43 

Freight Rates. (See Wheat, Transporta- 
tion) 

French Indo-China 157 

Fukien 68 

Funds. (See Appropriations, 

Balances Outstanding, 

Contributions, 

Financial Arrangements) 



Heights 2, 201, 202 

General Specifications: 

Dyke Construction 111 

River Channeling Ill 

German Government 157 

Gifts of Drugs, Serums, Supplies, etc. 

15, 152 (See also Contributions) 
Government Famine Relief Commission. 
(See National Famine Relief Com- 
mission) 
Grain Accounts. .53, 56, 137, 194, 221, 229 

p]xchange Account 

20, 46, 47, 94, 95, 97, 98, 130 

Exchange Committee. .20, 47, 140 
Stabilization Corporation 15, 16, 24 

Tickets 49 

Grand Canal 3, 4, 7, 

31, 45, 97, 117, 130, 131, 272, 283 
Grants per Capita. 72, 79, 80, 100, 140 

Great Britain 15. (See England) 

Guarantees, "Shop" 35 



H, 



landling Costs (See Wheat) 
Hankow ... 2, 7, 25, 33, 36, 109, 145, 160 

Han River 1, 45, 262-264, 280 

Harbour Lighterage 28 

Harvest 6, 87 

Hazard of Error 57 



Health (See Hygiene and Sanitation) 

Height of Dykes Ill 

High Water Records 2, 201, 202 

Ho Chin Hsicn 88, 100 

Honan: 

Allocations and Appropriations to. . 

14, 67, 68 

Flood Conditions in 4, 5, 184 

Relief Work in; 

Emergency 66, 76, 80, 90 

Engineering & Labour 110, 117, 

124, 132, 276, 277, 281 

Small Works 87 

Hongkong & Shanghai Banking Cor- 
poration, Loan by 19 

Hope Simpson, Sir John. (See Director 
General) 

Hospital Facilities 148, 

154, 156, 160, 168, 171, 179, 295-300 

Hospital Ship 150 

Hsien Committes 82 

Magistrates 82 

Hsi, T. C 105, 186 

Hsu Shih Ying - - 11, 144 

Hid Pan 66 



Hunan: 



Allocations and Appropriations to 
14, 86, 94 

Flood Conditions in 3 

Relief Work in; 

Emergency 66 

Engineering and Labour . . 109, 
117, 124, 133, 134, 138, 142, 265 

Farm Rehabilitation 93 

Flood Rehibilitation Committee 

46, 66, 76, 86, 93, 135, 138 

Medical Relief 153 

Small Works 84, 86, 89 



INDEX 



Hupeh: 

Allocations and Appropriations to 

14, 68, 95, 96 

Flood Conditions in 3 

Relief Work; 

Emergency 69, 73 

Engineering and Labour 

109, 117, 124, 131, 142, 255-264 

Farm Rehabilitation 94 

Flood Emergency Relief Com- 
mittee 66, 94 

Flood Rehabilitation Committee 

97 

Medical Relief 

152, 160, 176, 179, 181 

Small Works 89 

Hwai River, 1, 3-5, 31, 46, 60,108, 110,124, 

133, 150, 184, 189, 196, 266-271, 282 

Hydraulic Engineering Bureau of N.E.C. 

143 

Hygiene & Sanitation. . 146-183, 290-304 
Hygiene & Sanitation Department. (See 
Organization) 



Imprest Account 50 

Industry & Commerce, Ministry of.. 145 

Infant and Child Mortality 150 

Information Department (See Organi- 
zation) 

Inland Transportation Committee 

20, 26, 56 

Inoculations, Mass, against Cholera. 

178, 293 

Inspection, Final 144, 278 

Progress 114, 140-144 



Inspection, Steamers 17 

Summer 141 

Wheat 17 

Inspectorate 20, 63, 64 

Insurance 24 

Interest Rates 16, 97, 101 

Italian Government 157 

Indemnity Remission of.. 17, 116 
Tools 17, 116, 128 



apanese Attack 18, 29, 47, 72, 81, 87, 99 
Junk Transportation 32, 35, 42, 43 



K 



iangsi : 



Allocations and Appropriations to 
14, 68, 98 

Relief Work in: 

Emergency 74 

Engineering and Labour 

." 117, 124, 142, 254, 257 

Farm Rehabilitation . . 100, 102 

Medical Relief 181 

Small Works 82, 84 



Kiangsu: 



Allocations and Appropriations to 

14, 68, 97 

Flood Conditions in 3, 184 

Relief Work in 4, 5 

Emergency 72, 76, 89 

Engineering and Labour 

109, 117, 124, 130, 

142, 197, 251, 272-276, 283-285 
Farm Rehabilitation 96, 236, 237 
Loan Agreement ...... 96, 238 

Medical Relief 152, 164, 176, 178 



INDEX 



Kiangsu Department of Agriculture and 

Mining 96 

Kitchen Relief 70, 75 

Kiukiang. 2, 3, 33, 36, 72, 130, 153, 170 
Kiukiang-Nanchang Railway (See Rail- 
ways) 

Kwangtung 68 

Kweichow 68 






of Nations 19, 158 

League of Nations Health Organization. 

155, 181 

L. Everett, Inc. 17, 27 

Lindbero-, Col. & Mrs. C. A 3 

Liquidation Committee 61, 186, 215 

Lists of Relief Recipients 78, 80 

Liu, Dr. J. Heng 151 

Liu Shang Ching . . 11 

Live Stock Purcha^o 96, 101 

Loading Agents 16 

Loan Policy 99, 100 

Loan to Provincial Authorities. 238-241 
Loans, Dyke and Seed 

86, 93, 95, 96, 100, 238-241 

Lo Ho Office, District 18 133 

Losses of Grain. . . .3S (See Wheat and 

Flour) 

Lower Yangtse Conference 27 

Lundby, Record Discharge of ...... 29 

Lunghai Railway. (See Railways) 



Mandate Creating Commission 11 

Map 4, 106, Back Cover (Inside) 

Market Prices of Foodstuffs 41, 190-1 

Masonry , . 131 

Mat Sheds 69, 129 

Maximum Height, Yangtse River 

2, 201, 202 

Meals given 77 

Medical Advisory Committee. (See Or- 
ganization, Hygiene and Sanitation 
Department) 

Medical Relief. (See Organization, Hy- 
giene and Sanitation Department) 

Medical Stores 156 

Medical Work, Appropriation for. (See 

Appropriations) 
Meetings of the Commission, Plenary. 

12, 21, 185 

Meningitis 47, 295 

Methods of Paying for Earthwork 

124, 127, 191 

Midwife Training Course 167 

Minimum Height, Yangtse River 

2, !<)<), 201, 202 

Ministry of Communications 28 

Finance 18 

Industry & Commerce. .145 

Missionaries and Missions 

51, 87, 81), 148, 156 

Mississippi River 22 

Morbidity. 146, 147, 150, 295, 296, 303 

Mortality. (See Deaths) 

Mutual Aid Societies. 92, 94, 98, 100, 102 



Maintenance of Dykes 195 Nanking. .2, 3, 25, 2G, 29, 30, 32, 30, 38, 

Malaria 181-183, 295-296 71, 80, 89, 145, 152, 167, 175, 178, 180 

Manchuria ... - 18, 87 Nanking Flood Relief Association. 80 



INDEX 



Nanking, University of. (See Univer- 
sity of Nanking) 

Nantungchow 25, 31, 36, 45 

National Economic Council 

143, 188, 194, 305 

National Epidemic Prevention Bureau. 

158 

National Flood Relief Commission 

11, 13, 65, 77, 144 

Members of 11, 211-213 

Plenary Meeting, first 12, 21 

second 185 

Policy of 21, 185, 189 

Regulations of 205-210 

National Health Administration . . 151 
National Sinking Fund Committee . . 19 

Neglect of Dykes 7-10 

Netherlands East Indies Government. 158 

Ningshu District 66, 76, 97 

North Anhwei Joint Committee .... 83 

Norwegian Government 158 

Number of Small Works 84 

Numbers, Employed, Relieved 

72, 80, 85, 98, 124, 189 



o 



perating Expenses 

Emergency Relief 90 

* Camps 69, 72 

Small Works 86 

Village 78 

Engineering and Labour Relief 
Division 104-145 

Farm Rehabilitation .... 92-103 

Hygiene and Sanitation Depart- 
ment 146-183 

Tools 115 

Wheat: 

Cost 224, 305 



Operating Expenses Continued. 

Handling ... 24, 26', 28, 30, 38, 

40, 46, 53, 59, 221-229, 305 

Opposition from Property Owners. 135 

Orphanages 75 

Organization Chart 245,290 

Organization 12, 205, 207 

Audit Committee 214 

Audit Department 

12, 20, 52, 207, 209 

Accounts Division 20, 50 

Commissary Division 20, 31, 51, 63 
Coordination of Private Charities 

Department 14, 130 

Director General 19, 47, 209 

Districts 31, 64, 66, 

92, 98, 117, 151, 225, 246-277, 298 
Emergency Relief Division, .... 

20, 31, 63, 66 

Engineering and Labour Relief 

Division 20, 31. 63, 104-145 

Farm Rehabilitation Division.... 

20, 31, 63, 92 

Field Operations Department 

12, 30, 63, 207, 209 

Finance Department 

12, 14, 50, 138, 207, 209, 213 
Hygiene and Sanitation Depart- 
ment.. 12, 147, 152, 153, 207, 209 
Information Department 

12, 207, 209 

Inland Transportation Committee 

20, 26, 214 

Inspectorate Division . . 20, 63, 64 
Liquidation Committee 

61, 387, 215 

Secretariat 12, 207, 209 

Standing Committee 

12, 207, 209, 213 



INDEX 



Organization Con tinned. 

Transportation Department 

12, 20, 207, 209 

Overhead Expenses. (See Expenses, 
Administrative) 

Over-seas Chinese 14, 158 

Ox-cart Transport 46 



Program, Preventive 195 

Programming Upriver Shipments . . 28 

Property Losses 6, 10 

Prosecutions 69, 88 

Psychology 114, 121 

Public Health Department, Municipality 

of Shanghai 156" 

Pukow 25, 26, 29. 32 



Purchase: 



iai 119 

Panama Canal, Comparison with . . 139 

Patients Treated 294-296 

Pengpu 32, 38. 142, 153, 175 

Per Capita Relief Received 

72, 79, 80, 100, 140 

Personnel 

34, 79, 89, 98, 102, 119, 124, 154 

Pilferages 68, 59 

Ping Tiao 89 

Plenary Meeting of the Commission.... 

12, 21, 185 

Policy of the Commission, (See National 

Flood Relief Commission, Policy of) 

Polish Government 1& 8 

Population Affected . 5, 6, 203 

Poyang Lake 3 107 

Precipitation ' 1 2 

Premium's, Insurance 24 

Preparation of Preventive Program. .195 

Prices of Foodstuffs 41, 190, 192 

Principles of Relief 21, 92, 188 

Private Charities. 12, 88, 131 (See also, 

China International Famine Relief 

Commission) 

Private Dykes 86, 94, 100, 109 

Problem before the Government .... 10 



Bagis 25 

Clothing 81 

Drugs, Medicines, etc 156 

Tools 17, 115, 116, 128 

Wheat . . 15, 17, 24, 220-224, 305 



vjuantity of Work Done 

84, 94, 138, 139, 247-277 

Quarantine Service 163 



r\ace against Time 109, 184 

Railways: 

Kiukiang-Nanchang 42 

Lunghai 33, 42 

Peiping- Hankow 33, 42 

Tientsin-Pukow 32, 42, 100 

Wuchang-Changsha 42 

Rates of Pay 64, 79, 120, 126, 136 

Rations 70, 77. 80 

Recognition and Reward 143 

Recommendations 194 



INDEX 



Reconstruction Bonds of Kiangsu. 238 

Reconstruction Bureaus 106 

Recruiting 121, 122 

Red Cross: 

American National 6, 158 

Belgian 157 

Red Menace. (See Communists) 

Red Swastika Society 65 

Refugee Camps . 69 

Rehabilitation of Farms. (See Farm 

Rehabilitation) 

Relief by Provincial Governments. .. .G5 
Relief in Kind, Argument for and 

against 190 

Relief Per Capita. 72, 79, 80, 100, 140 

Relief Periods 67, 81 

Relief Work 

Appropriations for (See Appro- 
priations, Cash; Wheat and 
Flour, Allocations of) 

Emergency .... 14, 22, 6*3-91 

Camps 69-75 

Kitchens 75 

Orphanages 75 

Refugees 69 

Small Work 81-87 

Village 77-81 

Engineering and Labour. .104, 208 
Farm Rehabilitation. .92-103, 208 

Medical 147-183 

Repayments of Loans 

86, 95, 97, 100, 102, 238-241 

Reserves, Allocations from 40 

Resources of the Commission, Estimated 
21 (See Contributions, Financial Ar- 
rangements) 

Results of Relief 193 

River Levels 2, 201, 202 



Oa Ho Office, District 18 133 

Safe Drinking Water 162, 180 

Sales of Wheat and Flour 

20, 47, 49, 192, 229, 305 

Salt Bonds 13 

Sanitation 

71, 162, 166, 169, 171, 172, 180, 292 

"Save the Children" Fund 68 

Scales 54 

Scandinavian Ships 24 

Secretariat 12, 205, 209 

Secretary General 205, 209 

Section Organization 118 

Security for Loans 97, 101, 238-241 

Seed and Dyke Loans 

95, 96, 101, 238-241 

Seizures 68, 88 

Shanghai Refugee Camp 68, 72 

Shantung Grand Canal Commission 

131, 138 

Shelter 69, 129 

Shipments, First and Last, Dates of . . .25 

Shipping Notice 56 

Ships, Nationality of 24 

Shoes, Donations of 74 

Shop Guarantees 35 

Shu Lun Pan & Co., Chartered Accoun- 
tants 20, 229, 305 

Siang River - 9, 133 

Slope of Dykes Ill, 251-275 

Small Labour Relief 81-87, 186 

Small Pox 161, 170, 294-296 

Soong, T. V. (See Chairman) 

Spanish Government 155, 158 

Standing Committee 

16, 185, 207, 209, 211, 214 



INDEX 

Stevedorage 27, 40 Travelling Clinics 

Storage Costs, District Depots 35 ....153, 164, 167, 170, 172, 173, 174 

Outdoor 38 Tsaitien Camp 70 

Stroebe, Col. G. G 105, 213 Tseng, T. K. 186 (See also, Secretary 

Sub-depots 33, 37 General) 

Sub-Section Organization 118 Tuan 119 

Subscriptions, Public. (See Contribu- Tun Tin Lak e 3, 9, 86, 107 

tions) Typhus 16? 

Subsidies to other Organizations 

67, 77, 83, 88, 94, 

95, 112, 131, 233, 234, 256, 261 272 

Summary of Situation 10 I I i a. 3 m T i 

J Uncompleted Engineering Work 

Superintendent, Inspection and Relief 143 187 188 

64 > 66 > 78, 82 Unit ' costs .'.'..".".'.".".".'.".. .'. ..30, 40, 

Surtax, Customs 18, 218, 305 44 ^ 45 ^ 46 ^ 60 ^ 69 ^ 72? 79> 90, 98, 139 

Survey, Aerial 3, 13, 106, 203 United States 6, 22 

D y ke 107 Unit of Weight 53 

Economic. .2, 3, 6, 10, 69, 151, 203 University of Nanking. .6, 10, 69, 150, 203 

Swiss Government 158 

Szechuen 68 

Variations in Wage Levels 136 

Village Relief 77, 81 

T Vice-Chairman ..209 (See also, Director 

able of Maximum Gauge Heights.... G ^ 

2 201 > 202 Volunteer Workers 80, 89, 152 

Tamping Ill 

Technical Board 106, 215 

Theoretical Maximum Water Level . . 7 

Three Eastern Provinces 18, 87 \ A / 

Tientsin-Pukow Railway. (See Rail- V V age Levels 136 

ways) Wastage (See Wheat and Flour) 

Tools 17, 115, 128, 136, 188 Water Level 2, 7, 201, 202 

Tour of Final Inspection Party 144 Water Transport Costs 43 

Towing by Steam Launch 44 Weighing 53 

Training Camps for Foremen 120 Weight of Bag 1 of Flour 55 

Trans-Pacific Movement 16,24 Wheat 39, 55 

Transportation. (See Wheat) Wheat Storage Facilities 

Transportation Rates 27, 43, 49 28, 31-34, 35-37 



INDEX 



Wheat and Flour: 

Accounts 53, 56, 194 

Allocations of . 40, 67, 81, 92, 
95-98, 116, 131, 133-135, 225-226 

As a Diet 41, 123, 192 

Certificates 49 

Distribution of 24-62, 70, 78, 

100, 226, 229, 232, 235, 247-273, 
276, 277 (See also, Allocations) 
Handling .... 16, 24-62, 216, 217 

Purchase Negotiations 

15, 16, 24, 25, 216, 217 

Transportation 

16, 24, 27, 30, 45, 46, 51 

Wastage and Losses 

38, 54, 57, 58, 191, 229, 305 

Widening River Bed 8, 110, 

111, 139, 269, 274, 275, 284, 285 

Width of Dykes Ill, 251-277 

Women's Foreign Missionary Society 159 
Work, Completion of.. 61, 67, 81, 96, 142 

Length of 139, 246-277 

Quantity of 84, 86, 94, 97, 138, 139 



Work Loans (See Loans) 

Wuchang 42 

Wuchang-Changsha Railway. (See Rail- 
ways) 

Wuhan Section Travelling Clinic 159-164 
Wuhu 30, 33, 36, 53, 60, 72, 153, 172, 179 



Y, 



ang'tse Insurance Co., Ltd 24 

Yangtse Insurance Co., Ltd 24 

River Commission 3, 105 

River, Discharge of 2 

River. Height of . . 7, 201, 202 

Wharf 28 

Yellow River . 1, 5, 10 

,, River Bureau 133 

Yi Ho, District 18 133 

Ying Ho Engineering Work 133 

Yochow 33 

Young Men's Christian Association 89, 100 

Women's 89 

Yunnan 68